Geological Scenario of Bangar Area Dewas District Malwa Region, Madhya Pradesh, India

Review Article

Geological Scenario of Bangar Area Dewas District Malwa Region, Madhya Pradesh, India

Corresponding author: Mohammad Rizwan, School of Studies in Earth Science, Vikram University, Ujjain, Madhya Pradesh, India, E-mail: me.siddique@rediff.com

Abstract

The paper incorporates an account of the geological characteristics of Bangar area confined to Dewas District, Malwa region of Madhya Pradesh in India. The Bangar area is comprised of three lava flows belonging to the middle Deccan Trap Volcanic Prov- ince (Upper Cretaceous to Lower Eocene age). The study area is characterized by the presence of typical Deccan trap rugged topography (isolated hills with flat tops). The salient features of lava flows have been described. The soils are varying in color, texture, moisture content and mineral composition from place to place. The identified structural features include columnar joints and spheroidal weathered structures. It is visualized that the characteristics of identified geological features may aid in the recognition of groundwater potential locations, which may resolve the prevailing water crisis problem in the vicinity of Bangar area.

Keyword: Geology; Lava Flows; Structural Feature; Bangar region; Dewas District; Madhya Pradesh; India

Introduction

In India, Deccan Trap Province is extending over an area of 510,000 km2 covering a large part of Kutch, Saurashtra, Kathi- war,(Gujarat), Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, and Karnataka. The Deccan trap is an extraordinarily thick geological formation, having a maximum thickness of 3048 meters in the neighborhood of Bombay (Mumbai). The record- ed thickness of the trap near Amarkantak is 152.4 meters and at Belgaum as 60.96 meters [1, 2]. Krishnan [3] remarked that the Deccan traps are the most extensive geological formation of Peninsular India, which may have occupied some of the areas intervening between the main mass and the outlying patches. The original extent may have been over 1.5 million km2 including the segment of the unknown extent which has been noted in the Arabian Sea to the west of Mumbai.

Location of Study Area

The study area, around Bangar, constitutes a part of Dewas district of Madhya Pradesh and limited within the latitudes 230 00’ to 230 05’N and longitudes 750 58’ 10’’ to 760 08’00’’E(- Survey of India toposheet number-46 M/16 and 55 A/4, Fig- ure 1). The study area is located at a distance of 12 Km. from Dewas (longitudes 780 06’ E latitudes 220 58’ N) towards Ujjain. Dewas is approachable both by road and rail throughout [4].

Stratigraphic Status

The paper deals with the stratigraphic status of the Ban- gar area in Indian stratigraphy it has been considered in the Deccan trap group of Madhya Pradesh. The Stratigraphic classifications of Deccan trap formation have been described including the first classification proposed by in Medlicott and Blanford [5] (Table 1, 2).

(C) Study Area

(B) Madhya Pradesh

(A) India

Figure 1. Location Map of Bangar Study area Dewas District, Madhya Pradesh.

S.No. Traps Approximate

thickness in feet

1 Upper traps, with numerous beds of volcanic ash and the inter trappean

sedimentary deposited of Bombay.

1,500
2 Middle traps, ash bed numerous above but less frequent towards the base,

no sedimentary bed known.

4,000
3 Lower traps, with inter trappean of Nagpur, Narbada valley, the volcanic

ash of rare occurrence or wanting.

500
4 Lameta or interatrappean group. 20 to 100

Table 1. A Classification of the Deccan Trap series is presented in the following section [5].

Wadia [6] has given the stratigraphic classification of the Deccan Trap into three groups. The stratigraphic relations of the Deccan traps among themselves, and also with the overly- ing of the Deccan Trap and underlying rocks have been exhib- ited (Table 2).

Nummulitics of Surat and Broach; Eocene of Kutch; laterite.

……………………………………Unconformity…………………………………………

Upper Traps 450 Meter Bombay region and Saurashtra. Lava flows with numerous ash beds; a

sedimentary Inter-Trappean bed of Bombay with a large number of fossil vertebrate and molluscan shells.

Middle Traps 1,200 Meter Malwa and central India. Lavas and ash beds forming the thickest part of the

series, no fossiliferous Inter-Trappean beds.

Lower Traps 150 Meter Madhya Pradesh, Narmada, berar, etc. Lavas with few ash beds. Fossiliferous

Inter-Trappeans numerous.

…………………..………………Slight Unconformity……………………………………

Lameta or Infra-Trappean series; Bagh beds; Jabalpur beds and older rocks.

Table 2. Stratigraphic classification of Deccan Trap [6].

The classification of Deccan traps into three division lower, middle, and the upper has been widely followed and it has also been favored.

Geology of Study Area

Geology of study area forms a part of the Deccan Trap volcanic province and is located in Dewas district. Geological Survey of India, has worked out the following stratigraphic succession in Dewas area (Table 3).

AGE FORMATION LITHOLOGY
Quaternary to Recent Alluvial Alluvium Composed of fine-grained

material i.e. clay, silt block cotton soil.

Eocene to Cretaceous Deccan Trap Lateritic soil cap, basaltic lava flows.
………..…………………………….Unconformity……………………………………….

Table 3. Geological Successions of the Dewas Study area (After, Geological Survey of India).

The study area is covered by the Deccan trap lava flows. The tropical forms of the land include the lava plain, lava plateau, and the lava hills. The lava flows are horizontal in their dis- position, exhibiting variation in thickness. Eight basaltic flows in the Dewas district, have been recognized. Small patches of alluvium are deposited along the course of the Chambal Riv- er. During traverse, in Bangar area, three different flows have been identified.

The bottom and top reduced level (R.L.) of basaltic lava flows and their thickness in meters are as given (Table 4):

Flow III

This flow is confined to plateau only; it is separated from sec- ond flow by a zone of weathered and vesicular basalt at an elevation of 578 meters above M.S.L. This is the youngest flow

Flow No. R.L. in meters Above Mean Sea Level (A.M.S.L.) Thickness in meters
Bottom Top
Flow ΙΙΙ 563.00 578.00 15.00
Flow ΙΙ 543.00 563.00 20.00
Flow Ι 515.00 543.00 28.00

Table 4. Characteristics of Basaltic Lava Flow of the Dewas Study area.

exposed in the area, these are filled with zeolites, calcite.

The underlying massive part of the flow is grayish black fine to medium grained, compact, blocky and moderately to highly porphyritic basalt with plagioclase phenocrysts and specks of altered brown glass. The lower part of the massive zone shows exfoliation type of weathering. The flow is marked by the de- velopment and fairly thick, persistent red bole zone followed by a 2 meter to 3 meters. The contact can be observed on the plateau situated near the villages Khajuria, Newari, Bhimshi and Mukandkheri (Figure 2).

Flow ΙΙ

This flow over lies the first flow and is confined within the altitudes of 543 meter to 563-meter A.M.S.L. with an average thickness ranging from 20 to 22 meters. The flow is fairly well developed, thick and highly vesicular amygdular fragmentary zone with thin lenses of the red bole. The vesicles are irregular in shape and range in size from 2 mm to 1.5 cm. these are filled mostly with zeolites and calcite. Altered glass and quartz are less common filled with opal, agate, and crystals quartz. The underlying massive part of this flow is dark steel gray, com- pact, fine to medium grained and moderately porphyritic

Figure 2. A view of third flow exposed near Mukandkheri and adjoins area.

basalt with small plagioclase phenocrysts. Very rough colum- nar joints are developed in the upper portion of the massive part and radial to the necklace type of joints developed around vesicular blocks are common (Figure 3).

Figure 3. Photograph exhibiting the first and second flow near Brahmankheri.

Flow Ι

This flow is confined to altitudes 515 to 543 meter A.M.S.L. and is exposed around Bangar, Sindni and Naranjipur with thickness varying from 28 to 30 meter. Fairly persistent are 0.3 to 1.5-meter thick red bole horizon with green earth patches followed downwards by highly vesicular zone. The vesicles are irregular, range in size from 3mm to 1.4 mm and filled with calcite, zeolite, and silica. Calcite is found as cavity filling, ranging in size from 1.5 cm to 15 cm in diameter. The vesicles in the fragmentary zone of the western part (Siya, Siyapu- ra, Durgapura) of the area are sub rounded to rounded with calcite, zeolites, and silica, ranging in size from 3mm to 1.4 cm. The lower massive part of the flow is very compact, massive, dark gray, fine to medium grained. It is porphyritic basalt with

columnar joints exposed around, Narangipur, Brahmankheri and Nepaniya (Figure 3).

Economics Geology of Area

The traps are used as a building stone. The closely spaced vertical and horizontal joint systems in the massive basalt makes it easily formed into thin blocks and chips, which are useful as stone blocks, pavement stones, road material and concrete aggregates. It is also easily available road metal quartz and agate.

Secondary minerals namely, zeolites (heulandite and natro- lite), chert, quartz, and calcite occur in bugs and along frac- tures in almost all the flows, zeolites are predominant. The occurrences of secondary minerals are more common in the fragmentary top zone. These are too scanty and discontinuous to be of economy significance.

Groundwater Occurrence

Hydrogeologically, Bangar region is poor in groundwater which is normally found 7 to 30 meter below the surface. Water is retained in vesicles, joints and weathered zone. Prac- tically, groundwater originates as surface water. The principal source of natural recharge includes rainfall, stream flow, and reservoirs. Artificial recharge, occur from excess irrigation, seepage from canals, and water applied to augment ground- water supplies.

  • Topography: The study area is dominantly occupied by basaltic lava flows. These rocks are found to expose in the plains as well as along with plateaus of varying heights. The total field area is an agricultural field and highly fertile for crops like- soybean, wheat, cotton, Jawar, groundnut and other.
  • Climate: The Bangar area falls within the high-temperature region and enjoys sub tropical monsoon type of climate. The characteristic climate features of the area are- moderate rain- fall, high temperature, cold winter and dry summer. Generally, December and January are the coldest months of the winter season and May to June is the hottest months of the summer, July and august months of heaviest rainfall of the area.
  • Temperature: Dewas region belongs to the high-tempera- ture belt. The maximum temperature varies from 34oC in March to 450C in May, whereas the minimum temperature ranges from 10C in January. The temperature during October increases to 130C and reaches up to 45oCin the month of May, which is the hottest during the summer season. The recorded average temperature is 230C.
  • Rainfall: The rainfall ranges from 440.6 mm to 1366.0 mm within an average value of 909.37 mm. July and August period receives higher rainfall in the area. The area receives rainfall mainly from the Arabian Sea clouds.
  • Humidity: The maximum humidity has been recorded during the rainy season ranging from 79-85%.The lower value of humidity ranging from 23 to 58% is observed during the summer period.
  • Wind: The winds are strong during summer and monsoon seasons. Winds mainly blow with a speed of 9 to 32 kilometer par hours during March to September. The area characterized by winds blowing from North-East quarters in the month of October.
  • Drainage: The area is mainly drained by Chhoti Kali-Sindh and Kshipra River and its tributaries. Kshipra River flow- ing in South-North direction forms the western boundary of the region. Kalisindh drainage basin region is situated in a North-Eastern part of Dewas district.

Hydrogeological Features In Study Area

The occurrence of groundwater is generally identified on the basis of evidence of certain structures namely, vesicles, cavi- ties, interstitial space in clinker lava, shrinkage cracks, lava tubes, gas vesicles, fissures resulting in a basaltic terrain . The study area has usually poor to moderate permeability depend- ing on the presence of primary and secondary fractures. In solids forms, igneous rock is relatively impermeable and hence serves as poor aquifers. Where such rocks occur near the sur- face under weathered conditions, however, they have been developed into the small well for domestic water supply. Bore wells tapping the fracture systems generally yield less than 1 – 10 lbs. The transmissivity value of the fractured rock aquifers vary from 10 – 500 m2/d and the hydraulic conductivity varies from 0.1 to 10 m/d [7].

In Bangar area, Chhoti Kali Sindh and Kshipra are major Riv- ers. The groundwater is recharged in a natural process. The ground water fluctuation is generally depended on the geol- ogy, topography, structural, rainfall and over exploration of groundwater resources. The groundwater level in the study area is rapidly depleting resulting into a crisis of water sup- ply for human life and agriculture department. An attempt has been made for the assessment of water quality being pollut- ed by effluents. Selected parameters include pH, temperature, total solids (TS), total dissolved solids (TDS), total alkalinity, total hardness, and chloride content and observed the Ca, Mg, Na, K, Co3, HCo3, Cl, NH4, NO3 and others. It is suggested that depleting trends of groundwater level can be checked by the implementation of the proper scheme in valuing construction of artificial recharge structure and argumentation of rainfall phenomena and department of forestations. The form of a wa- ter table may change and vary due to seasonal changes [8].

Soils

The soil is the mineral and organic material that supports plant growth on the earth’s surface. It is a mixture of particles of rocks, organic materials, living forms, air, and water. In Ban- gar area, soils are varying in color, texture, moisture content, mineral constitution and mineral composition from one place to the other. It covers a maximum portion of the study area with a thickness varying from 4m to 20m approximate. They are three type of soil in area – Block cotton Soil, Red soil, and Alluvial soil.

Block cotton Soil:

The block cotton soils covering major parts of the study area. “Block cotton soil or vertisol is a soil in which there is a high content of expansive clay known as Montmorillonite that forms deep cracks in dry seasons or years often 5 or 6 inches across and several feet deep. The soil is found in vast plains and low-lying areas. The thickness of the Block cotton Soil maximum 8 to 20 meters. and there is a constant accumulation of water of natural recharge. The soil is highly fertile for crops like soybeans, wheat, jawar, cotton, etc. (Figure 4).

Figure 4. Showing a view of black cotton soil developed near Bangar, Dewas area.

Red Soil:

The red soil is developed mainly in the villages of Siyapua and Durgapura, in the form of sandy clay red color due to iron per- oxide. This contact is demarcated by a 0.30 m. to 1 m. the thick horizon of red bole in most of the area. Outcrops of the flow are found along the hill sections of Jhonkari, Durhapura, Siyapu- ra and Siya (Figure 5). They seem to have been formed by the chemical leaching of the rocks. The texture of the red soil rang- es from sandy loam to sand, with consequent variation in color in different shades of red. The soil has less quantity of nitrogen and humus. These soils have poor fertility.

Alluvial Soil:

The alluvium is a clastic, fragmental material mainly gravel, sand and silt particles produced by the erosion and transpor- tation of the weathered material and deposited along the flood

plains of a stream section. This is occurring in vicinities of Patlodha, Mukrkha, and Medhkidhakr villages near the Choti Kalisindh River and its tributaries in the area (Figure 6). The alluvial soils are pale yellow to grey and yellowish red in color. The thickness of the alluvium soil is 10 to 15 meters. The allu- vial soil is good for the various types of crops and also proves to be always a good aquifer.

Figure 5. (A) View of soil exposer near Siyapura Form showing the Red soil. (B) A view of Red soil exposir showing well devloped bold- ers and effect of weathering near Siyapura & Durgapura, Dewas study area.

Figure 6. Photograph showing the presence of alluvial soil along stream course (dry) near Patlodha, Dewas, M.P.

Structure Feature

In Bangar area, the presence of columnar joints and spheroidal weathering are the important fechers as an indicator for explo- ration of groundwater.

Columnar Joints

Columnar joints are the most common features. These joints exhibit pentagonal to a hexagonal appearance in top view and the irregular semi-developed joints are observed at Brah- mankheri and Naranjipur area (Figure 7).

Figure 7. (A) A view of basaltic expose showing lava flow 1 & 2 with well developed columnar joints exposed that near Brahmankheri of Dewas M.P. (B) A view of basalt lava flow showing well developed vertical joints pattern near Naranjipur village study area of Dewas M.P.

Spheroidal Weathering:

Spheroidal weathering is a type of chemical weathering that creates rounded boulders and helps to create domed monoliths. The spheroidal weathering structures have been observed near the villages Siyapura form and Durgapur Hills of (Figure 8).

Figure 8. A view of lava flow third showing joints pattern and sphe- roidal weathering observed near Siyapura Form, Dewas area, M.P.

Conclusion

The paper has presented a brief account of the important fea- tures of the geological setting of Bangar area confine to Dewas district, Madhya Pradesh. The study area is mainly occupied by three lava flows of the Deccan Traps, ranging in age from Upper Cretaceous to Lower Eocene. The lava flows are distinguished on the basis of elevation, color and petrographic analysis. The lava flows are exhibiting the presence of columnar joints and spheroidal weathering structures. An elaborative account of geological setting of basaltic lava flows of Deccan traps has been described in brief. Based on the diagnostic features of ba- saltic lava flows authors have delineated the demarcation of groundwater potential sits which are of considerable value in resolving the prevailing demand of sustain water supply.

References
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  2. Mehdiratta RC. Geology of India, Pakistan, and Burma. (3rd edition), A. Ram Publishers, 1962.
  3. Krishnan MS. Geology India and Burma C.B.S. Publishers and distributors New Delhi, 1982.
  4. Rizwan M, Dev P. Quantitative Morphometric Analysis of a Watershed in the Region of Bangar Area, Dewas District, Mad- hya Pradesh, India. International Journal of Research (IJR). 2014, 1(9): 16 – 26.
  5. Medlicott HB, Blanford WT. H.B. A manual of the geology of India. The government of India, Calcutta, 1879.
  6. Wadia DN. Geology of India, Macmillan and Company Limit- ed, London, 383: 1967.
  7. Chahar BR. Groundwater Hydrology, McGraw-Hill Education private Limited, New Delhi, 2014.
  8. Rizwan M, Dev P. Hydrogeological Examination of Season- al Variation in Groundwater Levels of Bangar Region, Dewas District, Madhya Pradesh, India. Journal of Hydrogeology & Hydrologic Engineering are the property of Sci Technol. 2016, 5(1): 1-6.

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