Jacobs Journal of Sports Medicine
Articles in Press
Volume 3 Issue 1
Use of Appearance and Performance-enhancing Drugs and Supplements among University Students in Kuwait
Hussein Al-Shati, Manar AL-Saqabi, Reem Al-Jabri, Mohammed Saleh, Ahmed Al-Arouj, Abdulaziz Abdullah, Manal Bouhaimed*
Use of appearance and performance-enhancing drugs and supplements (APEDS) has increased among young persons. We surveyed undergraduates in Kuwait to determine prevalence and factors associated with use. We surveyed 2002 students from private and public campuses. A pre-tested self-administered questionnaire assessed use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), growth hormone, protein powders, amino acids, fat burners, and laxatives/diuretics. We evaluated associations between APEDS use and sociodemographic, health, and health behavioral variables.