Jacobs Journal of Biomarkers (ISSN 2381-2729)




Dr. Shengle Zhang
State University of New York Upstate Medical University, USA


  • Biomarkers as health and
    disease predictor
  • Biomarkers in cancer detection
  • Biomarkers in Cell biology
  • Biomarkers in Geology and
    astrobiology (geo markers)
  • Biomarkers in Transcriptomics
    Biomarkers in Forensic profiling
  • Biomarkers in Clinical Research
  • Biomarkers Discovery and
  • Biomarkers for Microbial
    Infections and  Microbial biomarkers
  • Exposure, Response and
  • Susceptibility of Biomarkers
  • Techniques to Maximize
    Biomarkers Identification
  • Biomarkers Current Research
  • Biomarkers in Lipidomics and
  • Biomarkers in Drug Delivery
  • Biomarkers in Agriculture
  • Molecular Approaches for
    Biomarkers /Biomarkers in genomics
  • Pharmaceutical Research and

Open access truly expands shared knowledge across scientific fields; it is the best path for accelerating multi-disciplinary breakthroughs in research.

What is Open Access?

By Open Access, we mean the free, immediate, availability on the public Internet of those works which scholars give to the world without expectation of payment, permitting any user to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search or link to the full text of these articles.

Why Open Access?

Funders invest in research in order to accelerate the pace of scientific discovery, encourage innovation, enrich education, and stimulate the economy to improve the public good. They recognize that broad access to the results of research is an essential component of the research process itself. Research advances only through sharing of results, and the value of an investment in research is only maximized through wide use of its results.

Yet, too often, research results are not available to the broadest community of potential users. The Jacobs Publisher Open access journals provide a new opportunity to bring information to a wider audience at virtually no marginal cost, and allow them to use it in new, innovative ways. This has resulted in a call for new framework to allow research results to be more easily accessed and used.

Open access publishing promotes knowledge transfer by mouse click to global scientific community; users can discuss the articles in their research communities.
Open access publishing covers various initiatives and projects across the globe to make academic studies and results available to a wider readership.
In an Open Access publishing model the author retains the copyright, manuscripts are published relatively quickly, they are peer-reviewed by experts and quality will be maintained.
As open access publications has given unrestricted access, free of charge to world, even people in poorer countries who usually lack the financial means can access and use them.
Open access includes the increased visibility and citability of publications and all the other advantages of digital use, such as availability anytime, anywhere, being easier to find using search engines and the option of saving, copying and printing an article by user.
In a one word Open access is a driving force to bring research work online to global scientific world.

Editor Guidelines

We recognize the importance of our Editor/ Editor-in-Chief who play crucial role in Open Access Publication right from forming of editorial board to publishing of manuscripts in fostering the quality of a publication and the journals content. Editor/ Editor-in-Chief render invaluable services to Open Access through their eminence in research & expertise in respective field.

Responsibilities and Guidelines of the Editors

Editors are requested to assign the articles to the reviewers received from the editorial office. Articles are assigned based on the research interest of the editors. If the editors are busy with the other commitments, they can directly inform to the editorial office which enables us to assign the same article to other editors having similar research interest.
Timely contribution of the articles/ editorials/ short communications for upholding the issues constantly in the journal.
Encouraging the submission of the quality articles by recruiting authors or referring colleagues.
To determine the quality of the article once it is received from the editorial office.
Timely response to the editorial office to complete the review process within the provided timeline.
There is no limit for the editors to process the articles. It depends on the editors’ interest & his involvement in other commitments.
We encourage editors to provide new ideas/ suggestions for the development of the journal.
Editor has to monitor the complete peer review process to maintain the standards of the journal.
Editors need to ensure the protection of individual data and maintain confidentiality. While considering case reports and patient photographs, it is always suggested to obtain informed consent in written format.
Editors should ensure that all the articles are published with respect to the scope of the journal based on relevancy, integrity, scientific strength, new inputs, potential interest, completeness, clarity and ethics. Also assure that decisions given upon manuscripts are not affected by the authors’ origin, personal issues, nationality, ethnicity, race, religion or political beliefs. Decisions must be provided strictly based on the articles scientific validity and importance to the scientific community.


Review Process
Selection of reviewers
Reviewers Instructions
1. Review Process:

Reviewers play a major role in judging the quality of submitted manuscripts, articles or journals along with the Editorial Board Members through Peer-Review process. EB members help in handling the submitted manuscripts based on their expertise. They can accomplish the peer review process based on their own knowledge and experience or they can assign this task to the reviewers. The assigned reviewers are supposed to submit their comments to Editorial office by inclining to one of the below decision, the final decision maker is the assigned EB member. The identity of the reviewers is confidential to the authors at any time either during the process of review or after its publication. The papers should not be assigned to other people without Editors permission.
Reviewers comments should support one of the below mentioned acts.

• Accept it unconditionally
• Accept it with Minor revision
• Major revision
• To reject it outright (explain reason in report)

2. Selection of Reviewers:

Selection of reviewers for a particular manuscript is the responsibility of Jacobs’s publishers. It is based on many factors like expertise, proficiency and excellence in their particular field and their knowledge of past performance.
As part of our editorial procedure, we grant potential reviewers before sending them manuscripts to review. These Reviewers should keep in mind that even these initial messages or conversations contain confidential information, should be regarded as such.

3. Reviewer instructions:

Anonymity: Though reviewers are anonymous throughout the process, the review should be transparent, unbiased and should not involve personal or professional conflicts in the decision making.

Confidentiality: The articles received for review should be treated as confidential documents and should not be disclosed with anyone except with the assigned Editorial board and his reviewers. Reviewers are requested not to use any information of the assigned data even after publication unless they have the written statements of the authors.

Timely Review: The review process that results in timely publication provides a valuable service both to authors and to the scientific world.

Timeline: 10 days for Research/Review/Case Reports
07 days for Short Reports

Acceptance/ Rejection: The final decision of whether to accept or reject an article depends on the editor. Reviewers should mention a proper, sensible and fair reason to reject an article with recommendations.
Jacobs’s publishers allow reviewers to be notified about the outcome of the paper.

Feedback: The feedback to the reviewers along with the reviewer’s comments of that article will be sent to the reviewer to identify and transform themselves. Editorial Board who offers an opinion not accordance with the reviewer of that article should not feel that their recommendation is not considered and appreciated as it is the job of the EB members to make a decision.

It is easy to Submit the Manuscript at Jacobspublishers.

Send us an Attachment to :  addictionandtherapy@jacobspublishers.international


All submissions to Jacobs Publishers are published under the Creative Commons Attribution License which allows anyone to copy, distribute or reuse the articles by properly citing the author and the original source.

The procedure of submitting your manuscript is easy and quick.

Regular Issue submission

The steps need to be followed to submit your manuscript in the Regular Issue are as follows

Prepare your manuscript by following the Author Guidelines
Prepare a cover letter by downloading for Regular Issue CLICK HERE
Fill the data in the cover letter.
Mail the full manuscript along with the cover letter at: submissions@jacobspublishers.com
You will receive an acknowledgement within 24-48hours.
Special Issue submission

The steps need to be followed to submit your manuscript in the Special Issue are as follows

Prepare your manuscript by following the Author Guidelines at http://www.jacobspublishers.com/index.php/author-guidelines-in-foremostlinks
It should be clearly mentioned in the cover letter along with the title, if it is submitted to the Special Issue.Ex: Special Issue: Development of critical care in AIDS patients.
Download the cover letter for Special Issue: CLICK HERE
Fill the data in the cover letter mentioning about the Special Issue title.
Mail the full manuscript along with the cover letter at: specialissues@jacobspublishers.com
You will receive an acknowledgement within 24-48hours.
Note: Manuscript should be submitted in word/PDF file. A confirmation mail from the editorial office will assure you that your manuscript has been received.

Ethics in Publication

Ethical Principles: Jacobs authors are expected to stick to the ethical standards and conduct that remain mandatory in scholarly publishing. During the submission, authors need to mention that their work has not been submitted elsewhere, instances (if any) & conflicts need to be stated and plagiarism must be strictly cross checked. For Animal/ Human models, ethical authorization copy needs to be submitted.

Breach of copyright/ Plagiarism: Plagiarism can be defined as making a replica of the published content. Jacobs Publishers strictly against the Plagiarism. We cross check every submission that is been submitted to any of its peer reviewed Journal. Any submission that has partially /completely plagiarized content will be rejected immediately after submission.

Attribution Practice: Citations need to be acknowledged for previously published content. It is obligatory when new ideas or results are produced. If the author fails to reproduce citation for any previous work, it will be considered as technical plagiarism and the paper might be rejected immediately.

Conflicts of Interest: Jacobs Publishers involves double blind peer review system to avoid conflicts for the submitted manuscript. The authors should hold responsibility in providing conflicts if any to avoid further conflicts.

Confidentiality Protection: Editors, Reviewers need to be very cautious while handling the research work of the authors. It is ethically not accepted to use/disseminate the unpublished work. Use of the unpublished work might consider for legal actions.

Human and Animal Rights: Clear statements of ethical clearance documents need to be provided if applicable. The work involving animal models and human volunteers need to submit the essential statements.

Consents/Instances: Author needs to state consents and instances if any to avoid further obligations. Clear statement with written signature must be presented by the author while submitting his/her work.

Civility & Misconduct Allegations: Editors, Reviewers, Authors & the Journal staff are expected to adhere to the basic professional courtesy. Any verbal abuse, debates and insult is highly offended by the Jacobs Publishers. The supposed misconducts are severely offended further.

Jacobs Membership

As an endeavor in this noble mission we Jacobs publishers have rolled out a new concept called “Membership with Jacobs publishers” in which we provide maximum benefits to support your research. We hope this initiative of Membership with Jacobs publishers will inspire the global scientific & research community to usher in a new spirit of research. Following are the categories of memberships offered by Jacobs membership.

Individual Membership

In Individual Membership the registered scientist/ individual can publish unlimited submissions/ research work/ scientific work (Research/ review/ case reports/ editorial articles) for the period of one year.

Departmental Membership

In Departmental Membership the registered department can publish unlimited submissions/ research work/ scientific work (Research/ review/ case reports/ editorial articles) from entire department i.e. from Professors, Associate Professors, Assistant Professors and students of that department in our journal.

University/ Institutional Membership

In University/ Institutional Membership, the registered University/ academic institute can publish unlimited submissions/ research work/ scientific work (Research/ review/ case reports/ editorial articles) to any of Jacobs Publishers Journals.

Society/ Association Membership

In Society/ Association Membership, the registered Society/ Association can publish unlimited submissions/ research work/ scientific work (Research/ review/ case reports/ editorial) to any of Jacobs Publishers Journals.

Membership Fees

Type  Annual
Individual 3000 USD
Department 5000 USD
University 10000 USD
Industries 15000 USD
For further information regarding membership mail us to info@jacobspublishers.com


Article reprints from Jacobs Publishers commit to promote your research work with its professional quality reprints service delivered directly to your door at an affordable value. It aims to display the potential of the article at interviews, conferences, distribution to colleagues, seminars and other promotional activities. Reprints are produced from the final PDF of the article.

As all articles are open access, readers are free to download and/or print copies from the website, according to the terms & conditions of the Jacobs Publishers License . Authors must agree to distribute such reprints without any alterations, additions, deletions, overprinting, highlighting, promotional messages, or promotional attachments.

Author Reprints :

Author reprints are solely for the author’s personal, noncommercial use. Author reprints are available in both B/W and colour format with the addition of a standard cover page. Each article reprint is available with cover pages of the journal itself in order to maximise the impact and highlight the prestige of the content.

The front cover of the Reprints consists of :

Publisher logo
Name/logo of the journal
Title of article, complete list of authors, and Article information
Commercial Reprints :

Commercial reprints are high quality with specially designed covers. The reprints are an exact replica of the published article. These reprints are available only in the colour format with the customized cover page.

The front cover of the Commercial Reprints consists of :

Publisher logo
Name/logo of the journal
Title of article, complete list of authors, and Article information
Citation information

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Author Guidelines

Publishing your research content in Jacobs Publishers.

To help you to easily publish your manuscript and to ensure that you are aware of all the procedures of publishing, you are requested to go through our guidelines and detailed illustrations.

Following illustrations will help you to understand the steps involved in publishing your manuscript in Jacobs Publishers.

Select a Journal

How to select the journals ?

The journal you wish to publish your article or manuscript should be on the similar subject line as that of your article. For example “Jacobs Publishers ” will accept articles on Cancer Science and Clinical Research.

Prepare your Manuscript

You need to follow few guidelines to ensure that your article is well written and well received by the scientific community and researchers.


Plagiarism (defined by the Latin word plagiaries meaning an abductor and plagiare meaning to steal) is defined by the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy on delinquency in research as the stealing of another person’s ideas, tables, content, processes, results or words without citing the appropriate credit to be considered as crime. . The locality of the content is irrelevant: when it comes to plagiarism, content from the internet is equally comparable to information from appearing in a book or journal.

Plagiarisms are of types namely Self, Blatant and Unintentional: You might have extracted quite some content from your own existing paper. Such a plagiarism is termed self. Blatant is a very transparent way of copying contents from a few papers and unintentional is you might not have noticed while phrasing or paraphrasing.

Jacobs Publishers does not encourage any form of plagiarism, thus we strongly recommend you to check your article content before you submit manuscript to any of our journals. Plagiarism can be checked through online plagiarism software tools (although they are not completely reliable) to minimize further complications.

Formatting Prerequisites

1. Cover Letter
Cover letter must include the list of authors, and title of the manuscript. Mention the name of Jacobs Publishers and choice of interest to which the submission is sent. Cover letter should briefly communicate upon your study to previously published work. It should declare that the work is not published elsewhere. The article type should be mentioned (Research/ Review/ Short Communication/ Editorial/ Case Report/ Perspectives). Lists any suggested reviewers if any. Also, include current telephone and fax numbers, as well as postal and e-mail address of corresponding author to maintain communication.
Sample Cover Letter can be downloaded here: Cover Letter

2. File Types
Authors may submit their manuscript files in either of the mentioned formats like Word (as .doc or .docx), PDF. All the figures must be in either of gif/ tiff/ jpeg formats. The figure should be of high resolution and the figure legend word limit is 300 words.
If your manuscript is or will be in .doc format and contains equations, you must be following the instructions below to make sure that your equations are editable when the file enters production. We recommend you to use Math Type to create the equation.

3. Manuscript Organization
The following order remains same for all the article types except Abstract, Keywords remain mandatory for Research and Review. Word limits for Research/ Review/ Cases/ remain 5000 words where as for Short Communications/ Perspectives/ Editorials remain 1500 words. References cited are excluded in the word limit.

Order of Manuscript

Materials and Methods (Research)
Subheadings (Review and rest of the article types)
Results and Discussion (Results for Research/ Discussion for rest of the article types)



Title: The word limit of the title should not exceed 15 words. Title should be a proper description and relevant to the work provided. Font has to be set to Times New Roman Bold, Title case.

Abstract: Abstract should describe the main objectives of the study. It should be able to list out all the work briefly. Significance and the results of the study need to be precised briefly. Abstract ‘word limit’ should be limited to 300 words.
Note: Abstracts should be free of citations

Keywords: The major keywords used in the study need to be mentioned. Keywords limit is not more than 7-10 words

Abbreviations: If any abbreviations are used in the study, their first usage has to be mentioned in full form along with the usage abbreviation in brackets. If there are too many abbreviations they have to be mentioned below the keywords

Introduction: Introduction should be able to provide the background of the study. It should also provide comprehensive insight on the purpose of the study and its significance. Introduction needs to be descriptive and citations need to be provided

Materials and Methods: Particular details and/or practices for new approaches have to be mentioned. For the used protocols the proper citations has to be mentioned. Results have to be unique and not copied from any other sources. This section should present enough detail to permit researchers to fully replicate your study. We recommend authors to put forward detailed protocols for less well-established methods

Results and Discussions: This section might be further divided in subdivisions. Results and discussions must be providing the results. Illustrate the results of the experiments, the interpretation of these results, and the conclusions

Conclusion: Authors should elucidate how the results communicate to the theory presented as the basis of the study and provide a concise explanation of the allegation of the findings

Acknowledgements: Authors need to provide the funding details and the grant numbers if any. They might acknowledge their supported work

References: Jacobs Publishers use Vancouver referencing style. Authors should provide at least one online link in the references as following (preferably PubMed). Correct formatting of the references is important. Please use the following method for the reference list.

Reference Format: Author(s) Last name. Article title. Journal Name (Journal Short Name as in PubMed) Published year; Volume number: Page numbers.

Name of the author. Title of the book. Name of the chapter. Volume no. Edition. Edited by XXXX. Name of the city: Place; Year: Page numbers.


1.  Book Chapters:
Schnepf E: From prey via endosymbiont to plastids: comparative studies in dinoflagellates. In Origins of Plastids. Volume 2. 2nd edition. Edited by Lewin RA. New York: Chapman and Hall; 1993:53-76.

2. Complete Book:
Margulis L: Origin of Eukaryotic Cells. New Haven: Yale University Press; 1970.

Name of the author (Edition): Name of the conference: Date From –To Month Year; City. Place; Year.
Smith Y (Ed): Proceedings of the First National Conference on Porous Sieves: 27-30 June 1996; Baltimore. Stoneham: Butterworth-Heinemann; 1996.

Name of the author: Title. Degree thesis. Name of the University, Name of the Department; Year.
Kohavi R: Wrappers for performance enhancement and oblivious decision graphs. PhD thesis. Stanford University, Computer Science Department; 1995.

Name of the authors. Title. Journal short name Year, Volume (Issue): Page numbers.
Ponder B, Johnston S, Chodosh L. Innovative oncology. In Breast Cancer Res 1998, 10:1-72.

Name of the authors: Title. Journal short name, in press.
Kharitonov SA, Barnes PJ: Clinical aspects of exhaled nitric oxide. Eur Respir J, in press.

Tables: We strongly support authors to submit tables in .doc format. Each and every table should be in a separate page and numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals and supplied with a legend. Tables should be self-explanatory without reference to the body. Cells can be copied from an Excel sheet and pasted into a word document, should not embed the Excel files as objects.

Note: PDF format of the article should be requested to submit in a doc format, in order to help in the completion of procedure successfully.

Figures and Figure Legends: Submission of Figures must be only in high-resolution TIFF, and JPEG formats. If you have designed images with separate components on different layers, kindly submit us the Photoshop files. Use Arabic numerals to classify figures and upper case letters for their parts and should be in parentheses (Figure 1). Figures legends should be in numerical order on a separate document. Information given in legends should not be repeated in the body.

Equations (OR) Formulae: Please use Math type for equations. Suggested Equation extraction Methods are Table and Equation Specifications.

Supplementary Material: Figures/Summary diagram included as part of the Supplementary Information (if any). All Supplementary Information is supplied as a single PDF file, where possible. File size within the permitted limits for Supplementary Information.

Acknowledgements: Authors need to provide the funding details and the grant numbers if any.

Peer Review of Manuscript

All the articles/reviews/mini communications/special issues or any other content submitted to our journals are first processed by our editorial team. The topics covered in the content are ensured to meet the minimum journal standards for their quality, validity, novelty, relevance and contribution to the respective field. All the submitted content expected to be in accordance with the guidelines of editorial policy of the journal.

Peer review is planned to select technically original research articles of significant interest in the specified areas within the scope of our journals

Reviewers are expected to assess the novelty of the work, to identify flaws and to suggest improvements accordingly.
Reviewers involved in peer review process are responsible to analyze the validity, novelty of the work and can point out any shortcomings in the paper for further improvements
The articles submitted to our Journals are first processed by our editorial team and ensured that the submission meets minimum Journal norms for relevance, quality and contribution as outlined in our Editorial policy.
If the editorial team finds the paper not appropriate in terms of relevance and/or quality issues, the article might be rejected. Thus, articles that are sent out for review are assumed to meet these basic criteria for publication in our Journals.
The submitting authors and the reviewers are concealed from each other throughout the review process.
Peer review creates awareness of the emerging topics in the current research of area of interest.

Jacobs Journals are organized by Jacobs Publishers LLC company. They are self supported company and they do not get any financial support from any institution or Government. The handling fee received by the company from authors/academia/companies etc being used for the operation and maintenance of the journals in website.

Since it is open access to entire community, company do not receive any subscriptions. Authors need to pay a fair and reasonable handling fee for the processing their articles.

The above charges are levied only after accepting the articles for processing after quality check from our end.

Our regular article processing charges vary from $499 to $2799.

The above charges may vary depending on the various number of edits/modifications/additions/color effects/video additions/more number of pages/ extra alignments etc.

For encouraging students/scholars we are offering special edition for students. The price for students/scholars vary from $199 to $499.


Articles in Press

January 2018

Volume 4 Issue 1


Coming Soon..

December 2017

Volume 3 Issue 1


Research Article

DNA Methylation on Interleukin- 6 Correlates with Weight Loss in Obese Women

Eva Aumueller, Berit Hippe, Marlene Remely, Sandra Gnauer, Petra Rust, Alexander G. Haslberger*

Obesity and its associated comorbidities are major health problems worldwide. Obesity is accompanied by a systemic low-grade inflammation with elevated blood-levels of inflammatory mediators like Interleukin-6. Interleukin-6 was described to be regulated by epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation.

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December 2016

Volume 2 Issue 1

Research Article

A Five-Gene Signature Inferred from Transcriptome Profiling of Homologous Recombination-Mediated DNA Repair Predicts Clinical Outcome of Patients with Cancer

Shujiao Huang, Wei Tu, Zhenlin Ju, Graham M. Poage, Casey R. Cai, Abenaa Brewster, Shiaw-Yih Lin, Gordon B. Mills, Hua Wang, Guang Peng*

To prevent genomic instability due to DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), cells have evolved to repair DSBs in an error-free manner through the homologous recombination (HR) mechanism. Defective HR repair plays a causative role in the development of multiple human cancers, but defective HR repair can also sensitize cancer cells to the therapeutic effects of radiation therapy as well as to chemotherapy drugs that cause DSBs and importantly to the emerging class of PARP inhibitors (PARPi). As the HR pathway consists of a complex protein network, it has been challenging to predict patient outcomes or response to therapy by assessing HR repair status in tumors by interrogating genetic alterations of individual components in this network.

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Research Article

Urinary Metabolomics Profile of Genetically Obese Rats Using Liquid Chromatography Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

Jennifer Grant, Kayla Whitehurst, Carla G. Taylor, Peter Zahradka and Michel Aliani*

As the prevalence of obesity continues to increase further research investigating the body’s metabolic response to increased adiposity can help us better understand the disease and identify biomarkers that pave way for the development of new prevention and treatment strategies. The urinary metabolite profile can provide detailed information regarding the metabolic network at any disease stage and may be useful for investigating the effect of obesity on water-soluble metabolite profiles in genetically obese rats using a nontargeted metabolomics approach

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Research Article

A Composite Biomarker Panel as a Highly Informative and Reliable Tool for Predicting Septic Complications

Zemskov VM, Alekseev AA, Gnatenko DA, Kozlova MN, Shishkina NS, Zemskov AM, Zhegalova IV, Bleykhman DA, Bahov NI, Suchkov SV

Due to growing antibiotic resistance and poor early diagnosis, sepsis remains a formidable infectious complication of many diseases, often leading to death. Immune quantitative formulas for prediction and septic complications diagnosis for burned patients have been developed and included as follow: systemic lymphocytes, natural killers, HLA-DR+ monocytes, IgG deficiency, excessive activation of leukocyte intoxication index (LII), CD64+ of granulocytes and shift of hematologic state to the left. They allow prediction of septic complication of burn disease from several days to two weeks before establishing disease.

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Research Article

miRNA Roles: Sequence Analyses of Oncogenic and Tumor Suppressive miRNAs

Shigeru Takasaki*

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small (∼25 nucleotides) noncoding RNA molecules thought to play an important role in regulating gene expression. Knowledge of the biological functions of most miRNAs is still limited, but these miRNAs are thought to regulate the gene expression in various diseases. In this paper the relations between the sequences of cancer-related miRNAs (both oncogenic and tumor suppressive) and those of control miRNAs in human beings are examined from the viewpoint of nucleotide frequencies at individual positions.

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Research Article

Association between the 8-OHdG Level in Placental/Umbilical Cord Blood and Maternal/Neonatal Characteristics at Full-Term Birth

Satoko Ebina, Masaru Yamaguchi, Ikuo Kashiwakura*

Oxidative stress is defined as a disturbance in the prooxidant/ antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Oxygen is one of the most important elements required to sustain life. However, the oxidizing potential of oxygen can result in toxic biological effects. Some of the oxygen taken up by the body during respiration is used to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) during energy metabolism or defense against pathogens. ROS may  induce oxidative damage to DNA and are associated with various diseases, including cancer, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, hypertension and atherosclerosis.

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November 2015
Volume 1 Issue 2

Research Article

Automated Image Analysis of Podocyte Desmin Immunostaining in a Rat Model of Sub-Acute Doxorubicin-Induced Glomerulopathy

Jing Ying Ma, Rachel Church, Justin Kanerva, Anton Bittner, James Eric McDuffie*

Remarkable histopathology findings first identified by light microscopic examination of hematoxylin and eosin stained tissues often warrant further characterization. Recent advancements in the field of molecular diagnostic pathology include fully automated whole-slide imaging. Such tools support best practices for digital imaging and quantification of positive immunohistochemical staining. Consequently, we developed a novel computational method to automatically detect total glomeruli in whole-tissue sections and to quantify areas and intensities of desmin immunolabeling in podocytes.

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Research Article

RDW is a Novel Prognostic Parameter in Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma in the Rituximab Era

Fatih Teker*, Yasemin Kemal, Bahiddin Yilmaz, Ahmet Siyar Ekinci, Yusuf Guney, Yüksel Bek, Mehmet Turgut, Idris Yucel

After the invention of rituximab, RCHOP became the standard regimen for Diffuse Large B cell lymphomas (DLBCL). Some patients still have a poor prognosis. Recent researches on Non-Hodgkin lymphoma has been related with prognostic biomarkers. Elevated RDW is accepted as a worse prognostic factor in some situations and diseases but the prognostic value has not been studied in DLBCL. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic role of RDW in DLBCL.

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Research Article

Review of the Literature: Sepsis and Neutrophil Cd64

Silvana Teixeira Dal Ponte*, Ana Alegretti, Gabriela Petitot Rezende, Giordanna Andrioli, Luciano Diogo, Luciano Zubaran Goldani, Pauline Simas Machado, Renato Seligman

Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response against suspected or documented infection. In an infectious process, inflammation is triggered activating leukocytes, mainly neutrophils. CD64 is a surface antigen weakly expressed on non-activated mature neutrophils. When neutrophil CD64 is strongly expressed on neutrophils, it means neutrophils were activated, thus suggesting the presence of bacterial infection or acute fungal infection. A large number of biological substances has been investigated as candidate biomarkers and/or mediators of sepsis. Recent studies have focused on the investigation of neutrophil CD64 as a possible biomarker for the diagnosis of sepsis.

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 Research Article

In Older Adults, Intervention Impacts the Association Between the Cortisol Awakening Response and Three Measures of Wellbeing: Meaningful Activities, Life Satisfaction and Perceived Control

Rand Wilcox*, Douglas A Granger, Sarah Szanton, Florence Clark

Studies report associations between the cortisol awakening response (CAR) and measures of psychological stress and wellbeing suggesting the possibility that individual differences in the CAR might influence which individuals respond to intervention programs aimed at promoting healthier lifestyle. This issue is studied in a randomized control trial in a large (N =460) ethnically diverse community sample of elder adults (M age 74.9; 66% female) using a cross-over design. Three key measures of wellbeing (i.e., meaningful activity, perceived control, and life satisfaction) were taken before and six months later. Some participants (N = 232) did not receive intervention the first six months, they acted as a control group, but after six months they received intervention and were measured again six months later.

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Letter to the Editor

Biomarkers for Chagas Disease

Vitorino M Santos*, Lister A M Santos

Very important goal for researches about Chagas disease are reliable tools indicative of infection, before detectable pathology process. We read the manuscript of Pinho and Antas entitled Biomarkers for neglected Chagas disease where the eminent authors briefly, but clearly, highlighted the role of these necessary tools for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. They also properly commented about major hurdles and challenges involving the routine utilization of biomarkers to assess the risk of disease among the more commonly affected individuals, who live in lowincome areas of Latin American countries.

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Research Article

Wnt and Notch Signaling Pathways are Involved in the Development of Aggressive Salivary Gland Neoplasms

UK Sinha MD, O. Gantz BS, J. Brooks MD, R Masood Ph D*

Tumors of the salivary glands are relatively uncommon malignancies, representing only 11% of oropharyngeal neoplasms in the United States. Salivary gland tumors consist of over 20 different histological subtypes and can affect both the major salivary glands (parotid, submandibular, sublingual), as well as minor salivary glands throughout the oral cavity and oropharynx. Salivary tumors present with a wide range of biological behavior, from benign (oncocytoma, cystadenoma, pleomorphic adenoma) to highly aggressive (low grade acinic cell carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, and high grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma) with wide spread invasion, local recurrence, and distant metastases.

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August 2015
Volume 1 Issue 1
Nanotechnology for Biomarkers or Biomarkers for Nanotechnology in Medical Approaches: What Can We Anticipate?

Michele Munk Pereira*

In recent years, there has been excitement about the ability to predict the future disease risk factor status. For this purpose, biomarkers have been used in pre-clinical research and clinical diagnosis. The National Institute of Health Biomarkers Definitions Working Group has defined a biomarker as a measurable indicator of some normal biological processes, pathogenic processes, or pharmacological responses and toxicological effects of a therapeutic intervention [1]. Biomarkers can be of various molecular origins, including nucleic acid (DNA or RNA), protein (enzymes or antibodies), or a substance introduced into the body to assess how an organ, tissue, or system is functioning.

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Research Article
The Level of Regulatory T Lymphocytes may be Correlated with Outcomes in Early Sepsis

Tsai-Hsia Hong, Chin-Hao Chang, Jo-Wei Shen, Wen-Je Ko, Chun-Ta Huang, Sun-Liang Yu, Yih-Sharng Chen*

Severe sepsis is associated with high mortality; however, the mortality of the secondary infection after severe sepsis is often higher than that of primary infection. A weaker pro-inflammatory response was found in survivors in primary inflection. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in mid-term survivors, late death due to the secondary infection, were significantly higher than those in long-term survivors. Our hypothesis is that regulatory T cells (Tregs) suppress adaptive immune response in non-survivors and mid-term survivors.

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Biomarkers: Towards the Dream of Personalized Medicine

Morello Giovanna, Gentile Giulia, Cavallaro Sebastiano*

Since the completion of the Human Genome Project in the early 2000’s, genome-wide high-throughput technologies have transformed the biomedical research field. The growing quantity of information produced is collected in specific public repositories and is available for the scientific community, however only few of this “OMICS” information have been transferred to the patient bedside.

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Opinion Manuscript

Why Should we Start Biomarker Study in Urine?

Youhe Gao*

It is cruel that winner takes all. It happens in lots of games. It may happen in biomarker field too. It may not happen yet,because it has been hard to find any significant changes in blood, which can be used as candidate biomarkers. In urine it is not difficult to find changes, even though not all the changes are associated with the targeted pathophysiological condition. If we introduce a change into the blood, the homeostatic mechanisms will try hard to remove it from the blood. The change can then go to urine, breath, sweat and bile. Those are all greater places to find biomarker than blood. Urine is free from contamination, it is the ideal place to find biomarkers.

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Review Article

Alopecia Areata: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment

Falto-Aizpurua Leyre A., Cosme-Blanco Wilfredo, Wikramanayake Tongyu C., DelCanto Gina M., Jimenez Joaquin J.*

Alopecia areata is a type of non-scarring hair loss resulting from an autoimmune response towards the hair follicle, with genetic and environmental factors playing significant roles. It has a chronic, relapsing course and is a frequent complaint encountered in the dermatologic practice. However, the treatment options currently available have variable efficacy, and none are curative. In order to provide better treatment options, extensive research on the disease pathophysiology is being performed. In this comprehensive review article, we discuss the disease clinical presentation, pathophysiology, relevant animal models and current and potential treatment options for further investigation.

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Short Commentary

Biomarkers for the Neglected Chagas Disease: How Remarkable!

Rosa T. Pinho, Paulo RZ. Antas*

Our purpose here is to briefly comment on the current state and future trends in biomarkers for human Chagas disease. A variety of biomarkers, reflecting exposure to (asymptomatic carriers) and early effects of pathogen-related disease (clinically relevant patients), as well as individual genetic susceptibility, have become available with the intent to apply these population-based studies for Chagas disease. The data presented here reflect the lessons learned so far and the real challenges that still lie ahead to empower biomarkers to be used reliably in risk assessment for this disease.

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Research Article

In Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinomas, 18f-Fdg Suvmax Values are Independent of P63 Immunohistochemical Expression

Ruibal A, Aguiar P, Pombo M, Dominguez I, Gude F, Abdukader I, Herranz M

P63 is a member of p53 family, mapping to 3q27 and it is deregulated in a broader range of tumors. It is expressed in benign bronchial stem cells, in neoplastic cells with either squamous differentiation or squamous differentiating potential, as well as in a subpopulation of adenocarcinomas. It is up-regulated in the early phase of epithelial abnormality in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and also is involved in the control of maspin expression in non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC), a member of the serpin family of protease inhibitors that inhibits tumor growth and suppresses metastasis in some malignancies, including lung cancer.

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