Can Phonovibrograms be Used in Clinical Voice Pathology?
High-speed film has been shown to provide other results of diagnosis and treatment than video stroboscopy in randomized controlled trials [1, 2]. This is a new aspect which gives perspective for further randomized trials also for high-speed film combined with electroglottography and kymography. We earlier tried to identify the difference between electroglottography of singers and non-singers . The phases of closing and opening are different; the closing phases are longer in singers because the amplitude of the vocal folds is larger. In kymography we have not been able to find quantitative parameters in pathology . A vocal fold is assumed to move with vibrations according to the “two-mass model” (as a system of two coupled oscillators) . Stiffness of the vocal fold is discussed and investigated from many perspectives in literature [6-10].
The software program developed in Erlangen in Germany  is usable with the high-speed program from Wolf Ltd. . Stiffness of the vocal folds was focused upon and measurements of mean stiffness of the Glottal Area Waveform (GAW), right and left vocal folds as well as Trajectory 50% of the left and right vocal fold were focused upon. Data has only given hints of deviations in pathology, useable in randomized control trials.
Material and Methods
The examination is based on two patients, one female contest winning singer (20 years) and one male with severe acute laryngitis (59 years). They are both included with details in a comparison of 12 patients with varies disorders. Data were acquired with a high-speed camera recording in real-time during phonation of the vowel /a/. Into the oropharynx was placed a rigid endoscope (90⁰ optic, 9-mm diameter) coupled to a high-speed camera (Wolf, Germany). The high-speed open quotient is routinely measured in front, middle and rare part of the vocal fold with 4000 pictures per second. The high speed film including the arytenoid oedema was also recorded with the standard equipment from Wolf Ltd (11, 12). With the high-speed film we use an average of 4000 pictures of the vocal folds for two seconds and store.
With the Glottis Analysis Tools Program phonovibrograms are made to compare the patient’s voice functions. Furthermore the symmetry measures are calculated for the vocal folds for the following signals, Glottal Area Waveform (GAW) and Glottal Trajectories for the two patients. A comparison of data differences between the two high-speed film is calculated and compared with an earlier group with various diagnosis of pathology.
The results from the Glottis Analysis Tools Program are presented, measuring high-speed film for vocal fold dynamics for each vocal fold with the phonovibrograms.
Based on the setup presented in Figure 1, Figure 4 shows the phonovibrogram of the 59 years old male with extreme dysphonia do to a heavy acute laryngitis. The phonovibrogram is highly irregular due to occasional diplophonia.
Patient 1. _A002(SegFr_512-1008)
Patient 2. _A001(SegFr_7-356)
Table 1 is showing calculated measures for the signals of Glottal Area Waveform (GAW) and Glottal Trajectories in the left and right side for patient 1 and 2.
Mean values and standard deviation of 30 single movements of the vocal folds are presented, the minimum and maximum values as well. The same calculation procedure has been made for the Trajectories 50% [Traj-50%] of the right and left vocal folds.
Table 2. Our data analysis (Table 2) shows the female singer (_A002(SegFr_512-1008)) listed as “Singer observation”, as well as an average of all patients from the overall data material listed as “Group average”, hold up against the man with acute laryngitis (_A001(Seg- Fr_7-356)) listed as “Observation”. Table 2 shows an Amplitude-Symmetry deviation between the singer and the male with acute laryngitis probably due to dystonia and occasional diplophonia. At the purple line which indicates vocal fold edge points at medial position for the left and right sides.
4.Lohscheller J, Svec JG, Döllinger M. Vocal fold vibration amplitude, open quotient, speed quotient and their variability along glottal length: kymk sir ographic data from normal subjects, Lqoped Phoniatr Vocol 2013, 38(4):182-92.