Determining the Physiological Basis of the Effects of Alligator Pepper in Pregnant Sprague Dawley RatsUte Inegbenebor*, Ebomoyi M I, Obika L F OThis study was carried out to determine the changes in the fasting levels of some reproductive and metabolic hormones and glucose in pregnancy, that are due to the effect of saline extract of Alligator pepper, with the aim of determining the probable physiological mechanisms for previously reported bioactive effects. This was a controlled cross sectional intervention study. Forty-five (45) pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were allocated into experimental groups B, C, and D and 15 non-pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were allocated to the control group A.
The Trivialization of Subviral AgentsTheodor O. Diener*
I don’t think that many burghers of Delft in the Netherlands realized in1675 that one of their own would bring about a peaceful revolution that would forever change the way we look at the universe and particularly at its living inhabitants. For eons, we must have assumed—probably without much thought— that the biosphere, the realm of living beings, encompassed only beings that we could recognize with our senses. But when Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, a tradesman and scientist, looked with his self-built and improved microscope—an instrument invented only recently—at a drop of standing water, he must have been incredibly surprised, if not shocked, by what he saw: evidently self-propelled, living organisms swimming across the field of vision.
Homeologous Exchange and Segregation Generate Genetic Diversity in Resynthesized Brassica napus for Ten Generations Following Allopolyploid Formation
Tina Wang#, Alexandra Barbella#, Lauren Kearney, Holly Maulhardt, Emily Carnahan, Maya Benavides, Alan Chavez, Robert Gaeta, J. Chris Pires, Edward Himelblau*
Allopolyploids are typically produced by hybridization between species followed by whole genome duplication (WGD). Many plant species including a number of important crops are allopolyploids or are diploids with evidence of allopolyploidy in their evolution. Researchers use resynthesized allopolyploids to study the genetic changes that accompany hybridization and WGD. The Brassica species represent a well-established example of allopolyploidy and resynthesized Brassica allopolyploids have been useful tools for studying the genetic effects of allopolyploid formation.
Cytokinins – Their Chemical Structure, Occurrence, Metabolism and Biological Activity
Cytokinins are a group of plant hormones which play an important role in plant growth and development. They especially influence seed germination, de-etiolation, chloroplast differentiation, apical dominance, flower and fruit development and leaf senescence. Molecular and genetic analysis provided valuable insights into the molecular mechanisms of cytokinins action. This review focuses on the cytokinins occurrence, chemical structure and primarily on their metabolism, signaling and biological activity. The analysis of all those factors is necessary to understand the impact that they have on plant physiology and their role as developmental signals.
Over-Expression of Pokeweed Antiviral Protein Increases Plant Systemic Resistance Against Tobacco mosaic virus Infection in Nicotiana benthamiana
Feng Zhu*, Yang-Kai Zhou
Pokeweed antiviral protein (PAP) is members of the type I ribosome inactivating proteins (RIPs) that are isolated from the extracts of pokeweed plant (Phytolacca americana). Our previous studies suggest that exogenous application of PAP increases plant systemic resistance to Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) infection. In this report, in order to further investigate the role of PAP in plant systemic resistance response against virus infection in Nicotiana benthamiana, N. benthamiana leaves that overexpressed PAP-II gene (35S: PAP-II) was generated through Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression.
Evaluation of Oxidative and Salt Stress Induced Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase Genes in Arabidopsis thaliana by Bioinformatical Approach
Seher Yolcu, Gizem Dimlioğlu, Süleyman İlhan1, Filiz Ö zdemir1, Melike Bor*
Mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are known to be involved in many stress signaling pathways, including oxidative and salt stresses. In the current study, MAPK genes of A. thaliana were selected from UniProt database, their expression levels were analyzed by AtGenExpress Microarray database and classified with DAVID Bioinformatics on-line software according to their molecular functions in response to oxidative and salt stresses. Activation of oxidative and salt stress response genes which belong to MAPK signal cascade were investigated using gene ontology (GO) terms and expression profiles.
Influence of Nitrogen Fertilization on Biomass Accumulation of the Brewer’s Spring Barley
The objective of this study was to analyses the nitrogen fertilization effect on biomass accumulation and grain quality of the brewer’s barley. The study was conducted in randomized blocks with 4 replicates in Warsaw Agriculture University Experimental Field in Chylice. The experimental factors were: three cultivars of spring barley (Maresi, Poldek and Rasbet of chaffy grain) and nitrogen doses (0, 30, 60, 90 kg N/ha). The size of grain yield and protein content in the grain of brewer’s spring barley is closely dependent on nitrogen fertilization.