Volume 3 Issue 1

Volume 3 Issue 1

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Editorial

Ensuring Smoke-free Schools: a collective responsibility

Olubode A Olufajo*, Adeyinka Adejumo, Nnaemeka E Onyeakusi

Smoking is the number one cause of preventable death in the United States and leads to nearly 6 million annual deaths globally. It is associated with numerous disease conditions including various malignancies, respiratory conditions, and heart disease. Youth are highly susceptible to initiation of smoking because they are at experimental stages of their lives and can easily be influenced by societal norms. It is therefore important to protect them and ensure they can exist in environments free from pro-tobacco influences.

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Editorial

Minority Populations Remain Vulnerable to Adverse Health Outcomes

Evelio Velis*, Graham Shaw

In this editorial we address the connection between the socioeconomic indicators education and poverty, and adverse health outcomes specifically two of the most significant public health concerns currently facing the United States; adverse birth outcomes and obesity. It is evident that there are significant health gaps among racial and ethnic groups and our minority populations are at increased risk of both adverse health outcomes.

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Research Article

Infant and Perinatal Mortality and Stillbirths near Hinkley Point Nuclear Power Station in Somerset, 2005-1993; an Epidemiological Investigation of Causation

Christopher Busby*, Mireille de Messieres, Saoirse Morgan

Data from the UK Office for National Statistics for 1993-2005 was employed to examine infant and perinatal mortality, birth sex-ratio and breast cancer mortality rate as indicators of genotoxic effects in populations living both downwind of the Hinkley Point nuclear power station in Somerset UK and adjacent to coastal estuary mud flats which accumulate radioactivity from historic releases of radioactivity. We defined the center of the local contaminated mud bank, as the source of risk. For 1993-98, Trend in Relative Risks (33 infant deaths in 29 wards in 6km rings to 18km from the source) were 1.9, 1.54, 0.81 compared with 0.9 in the rest of 103 wards in the study area. Using Poisson regression with both Distance and Deprivation as covariates, Distance was significant (p = 0.015) but not Deprivation (p = 0.3).

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Editorial

Ebola virus Epidemiology in West Africa

Maria Teresa Mascellino*, De Angelis M, Borgese L

The outbreak of Ebola virus (EBOV) first identified in the forested southeast in Guinea in mid-March 2014 and then spread to the capital Konakry, was first described by Chandler C. who affirmed that up to April of the same year more than 80 people have died. Following these early observations, the scientists tried to understand the mechanism of the onset of emerging infectious diseases in general and specifically of the present zoonosis that was devastating wide regions of West Africa.

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Research Article

Reduced Fertility in Schizophrenia. A Consequence of the Disorder, of Premorbid Personality or Other Factors?

Heinz Häfner*, Peter Propping, Wolfram an der Heiden, Daniel Ropeter

We conducted three subsequent studies in the same semi-urban, semi-rural German population using the same unchanged diagnostic definitions. The overall period covered was about 50 years. Study 1 relied on retrospectively collected data for 1949-50 and follow-up data for 1962-1963, Study 2 on data for 1965-67 and a follow-up in 1978-80 and Study 3 on data for 1987-89 and a follow-up in 1999-2002. At each wave, patients were compared with age- and sex-matched population controls from the study area. In Study 3, based on a population-based sample of first illness episodes of schizophrenia, we also studied at which stage of illness patients’ fertility changed and how their reproductive wishes developed compared with healthy controls.

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