Volume 3 Issue 1
Clinically Silent Calvarial Defects in a Dog: Developmental Failure of Endochondral and Intramembranous Ossification
Eli B. Cohen, DVM, DACVR*, Ajay Sharma, DVM, MS, DACVR, Bonnie J. Smith, DVM, Ph.D, Steven D. Holladay, Ph.D., Shannon P. Holmes, DVM, MS, DACVR
A 3-year-old Shih Tzu was examined for bilateral nasal discharge and sneezing. The dog had no apparent neurological deficits. Computed tomography (CT) of the nasal cavity and remaining head was performed. Imaging findings were consistent with a non-destructive rhinitis. Multiple well-defined, round to ovoid defects in the calvarial bones were an ancillary finding of the CT imaging. A thin layer of soft tissue attenuation was present spanning these defects. Severe hydrocephalus was also identified, with no evidence of parenchymal herniation through the calvarial defects. Findings are consistent with a congenital failure of both endochondral and intramembranous ossification involving cells from both neural crest and mesoderm origin.
The Incidence of Temporomandibular Joint Structural Abnormalities in Orthodontic Pretreatment Patients
Jiaqiang Liu PH.D, Yi Jiang PH.D, Jing Mao MD, Yong Wu PH.D, Lixia Mao MD, Pan Ma PH.D, Lunguo Xia.D, Liangyan Sun MD, Jie Wang MD, Jinglei Zhao MD, Qinggang Dai MD, Bing Fang* PH.D
Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders constitute a common disease of the oral cavity that is encountered in clinical contexts. Moreover, the normality of the TMJ structure is closely related to both occlusal function and orthodontic treatment. This topic has attracted increasing attention from dentists, including orthodontists. The normality of the TMJ structure not only affects the development of orthodontic treatment plans but also plays an important role in determining the stability of orthodontic effects and can even influence decisions regarding whether to begin orthodontic treatment.