Addiction and Therapy
Sneha Pasupati, M.Sc, Ph.D
1School of Biosciences and Technology, VIT University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India
*Corresponding author: Sneha Pasupati, School of Biosciences and Technology, VIT University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India
Addiction is a psychological need to do, take or use something, to the point where it become harmful to the person. This journal articles describes the types, causes and signs of addiction, and where to get help or solutions. There are many reasons why addictions begin. In the case of drugs, alcohol and nicotine, these substances affect the way person feels both physically and mentally. These feelings are enjoyable and creates a powerful urge to use the substances again. Kicking the addiction is a major achievement. But for most of the people with opioid addiction, detox is only the beginning of a long-term battle against craving and relapse. Research studies on addiction therapy typically have classified programs into several general types or modalities. Treatment methods and individual programs continue to evolve and diversify.
Journal of Addiction and Therapy of Volume 3 Issue 1 published articles discussing internet addiction using Multiple Correspondence Analysis , and compared the variant rs1137115 of the CYP2A6 gene, which encodes the enzyme that metabolizes nicotine, and variant rs16969968 of the CHRNA5 gene, which encodes the receptor to which nicotine binds, between smokers and non-smokers .
From past years research articles discussing internet addiction has grown rapidly. It is claimed that presence of this bulk research data conforms more than scrutinizing despite of weak evidence for addiction. In Sweden, a study on excessive use of internet and its addiction has been repeatedly cited. Therefore, authors Karin et al. ., decides to tale a closer look at these citations and presented a systematic review of methods and theoretical methods utilized in studying internet addiction published from January 2000 to July 2013. In this light, only 17% were found to have an acceptable evaluative approach out of 174 articles studied using Multiple Correspondence Analysis. Using this methods authors have discussed new concepts regarding how internet addiction, development and risks involved in scientific processes that are critical and generally overlooked. From the studies carried out it is concluded that the discussion and research on “Internet addiction” is still major and uncritical in concern how it is defined measured and judged.
It is known that smoking is a complex addiction involved with heterogeneous phenotypic traits and marked genetic influence. In this study, Carlos et al. ., compared the variant rs1137115 of the CYP2A6 gene, which encodes the enzyme that metabolizes nicotine, and variant rs16969968 of the CHRNA5 gene, which encodes the receptor to which nicotine binds, between smokers and non-smokers. Also, assessed the presence of any connotations between these molecular markers and phenotypes of smokers. In this regard authors surveyed 101 non-smoker individuals and 101 nicotine-dependent individuals according to the NDSS-S scale, paired by age and gender and identified the rs1137115 and rs16969968 alleles using real-time PCR. From the analysis, it is found that the connotations between the NDSS-S scale scores and age, years of smoking, number of cigarettes per day and number of attempts to quit smoking. The genotype distributions of the rs1137115 and rs16969968 alleles showed no differences between the control and smoker groups. However, it is observed that in the smokers the rs16969968 allele is not linked with any of the phenotypic variables that is studied. However, the rs1137115 marker of the CYP2A6 gene is associated with the NDSS-S scale score. Hence, this difference is conserved only among smokers who are also homozygous wild type at the CHRNA gene. It is concluded that the individuals carrying the wild-type allele of the CYP2A6 gene have higher scores on the nicotine dependence scale and this genotype-phenotype linked is conserved only for those who also have the wild-type form of the nicotine receptor.
Further, the Journal welcomes articles from all the fields related to Addiction and Therapy.
For more information: https://jacobspublishers.com/volume-3-issue-1-archive-addiction-and-therapy/
- Karin H Bergmark*, Einar Stensson, Anders Bergmark. Internet Addiction: The Making of a New Addiction.
- Carlos A. Isaza M, Julieta Henao B, Leonardo Beltrán*, Sandra Valencia C, Alejandra Quiceno G. Phenotypic Traits and Genetic Markers Associated with Smoking.