Editor Note: Nephrology and Urology

Editor Note: Nephrology and Urology

K.Manohar Babu1*, M Sc., PhD

1Department of Toxicology, Institute of Genetics, Osmania University, Hyderabad-500016

*Corresponding author: Dr. K.Manohar Babu, Department of Toxicology, Institute of Genetics, Osmania University, Hyderabad-500016; Email: manoharbk@gmail.com

Nephrology is a branch of internal medicine and pediatrics that deals with the functioning of kidney, also discussing kidney diseases, preventive and therapeutic measures in overcoming them. Urology focuses on male and female urinary-tract system and reproductive organs. Journal of Nephrology and Urology concentrates on basic research and clinical investigation of nephrology and urology on cellular, molecular, prevention, diagnosis, and therapy and prognosis aspect.

Journal of Nephrology and Urology Volume 4 Issue 1 discusses topics related to concurrent chromosome 3p mutations that are associated with worse prognosis in clear cell renal carcinoma in an institutional cohort and the cancer genome atlas [1], renal dyslipidemia and cardiovascular mortality over two decades of follow-up [2], and the significance of age development characteristics of urethral plate in surgical repair for hypospadias [3].

In 2014 kidney cancer in the United States contributed to an estimated 63,920 new cases and 13,860 deaths, making it the 7th most deadly cancer in the country. Genes present on the short arm of chromosome 3, including VHL, BAP1, SETD2, and PBRM1 are most frequently mutated in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). While studies have analyzed mutations in each of these genes, little is known regarding the prognostic significance of co-existing chromosome 3p mutations.  Christopher et al. [1]., developed a high-throughput sequencing protocol for ccRCC specimens using Fluidigm Access Array with Illumina MiSeq sequencing. 21 patients and the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) ccRCC dataset were probed for co-occurring mutations in VHL, BAP1, SETD2, and PBRM1. From results those with BAP1 mutations, those with additional chromosome 3p mutations had decreased overall survival compared to others with BAP1 mutations alone. Hence, it is concluded that the patients with mutations in 2 or more chromosome 3p genes, excluding those with mutations exclusively in VHL and PBRM1, have overall significantly decreased and recurrence-free survival. These results may be useful for risk stratification in patients with ccRCC.

Renal disease leads to a characteristic dyslipidemia which is not manifested as hyperlipidemia in many patients. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is common in patients with chronic kidney disease. With declining renal function, the CKD patients develop characteristic alterations of the lipoprotein metabolism with accumulation of intact and partially metabolized triglyceride-rich lipoproproteins. These lipoproteins contain apolipoprotein C-III, which has been suggested to have a pathophysiological role in atherogenesis. lipid and apolipoprotein profiles of 341 non-diabetic adult patients in various stages of renal insufficiency were measured and other patient characteristics registered between 1975 and 2000. After profile determination the patient with the longest follow-up is followed for almost 24 years. Attman et al. [2]., determined the relationship between baseline variables and cardiovascular along with examination of overall mortality. From results due to a cardiovascular cause fifty-five per cent of the patients died and 172 patients died before the end of follow-up without having a renal transplant. Age and smoking were significantly linked with increased CVD mortality in all patients. Plasma lipids were not associated with CVD mortality in the dialysis patients. From results author concluded that the present long-term observational study showed that dyslipidemia contributes to overall and cardiovascular mortality during the early stages of renal failure but not in the more advanced stage of chronic kidney disease. Other more important prognostic factors remain to be determined in patients who go on to dialysis.

Hypospadias is the most common external genitalia deformity in male children. A condition in which the opening of the penis is on the underside rather than the tip. Surgery is the only way to treat hypospadias. Liu Guoqing et al. [3]., investigate the related significance between the age development characteristics of urethral plate tissue and selection time of the hypospadias surgery. 187 patients with hypospadias were treated with tubularized incised plate (TIP) surgical treatment, including 139 cases of distal type and 48 cases of proximal type. Accordingly, less than 6 months, 6 to 12 months, 13 to 24 months and more than 24 months in age, were divided into 4 groups. The average follow-up is done for 2.3 years. It is concluded that choosing a small age to receive urethral reconstruction is beneficial to improve the success rate of hypospadias repair one-stage operation which keeps the urethral plate.

For more information: https://jacobspublishers.com/december-2017-volume-4-issue-1-nephrology-and-urology/

The Journal welcomes articles from all the fields related to Nephrology and Urology.

Reference:

  1. Keith CG, Lian F, Sreedharan S, Davidson PE, Petros JA et al. Concurrent Chromosome 3p Mutations Are Associated with Worse Prognosis in Clear Cell Renal Carcinoma in an Institutional Cohort and the Cancer Genome Atlas. J J Nephro Urol. 2017, 4(1): 1-16.
  2. Attman P-O, Petzold M, Samuelsson O. Renal Dyslipidemia and Cardiovascular Mortality Over Two Decades of Follow-Up. J J Nephro Urol. 2017, 4(1): 1-7.
  3. Guoqing L, Shilin Z, Jianfeng W, Chunjing L, Xumin X et al. The Significance of Age Development Characteristics of Urethral Plate in Surgical Repair for Hypospadias. J J Nephro Urol. 2017, 4(1): 1-6.

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