Editor Note: Nephrology and Urology

Editor Note: Nephrology and Urology

P.Priyanka 1*, M.Sc., PhD

1 Department of Environmental Toxicology, Institute of Genetics, Osmania University, Hyderabad-500017

*Corresponding author: P.Priyanka, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Institute of Genetics, Osmania University, Hyderabad-500017; Email: pallapolupriyanka11@gmail.com

Nephrology study of kidney function and its related diseases, treatment and medication to renal replacement therapy and Urology focuses on male and female urinary-tract system and reproductive organs. Journal of Nephrology and Urology concentrates on basic research and clinical investigation of nephrology and urology on cellular, molecular, prevention, diagnosis, and therapy and prognosis aspect.

Journal of Nephrology and Urology Volume 2 Issue 2 discusses topics related to Radiographic Contrast Agents, Drugs Useful for Diagnostics, but with Contrast- Induced Nephropathy as Side Effect [1], Clinical Utility of Stool Culture in Targeting Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Transrectal Ultrasonography-Guided Prostate Biopsy [2], Plasma transforming growth factor-beta 1 and anti-HLA IgM antibodies affect the functional preservation of kidney allografts [3], and Endostatin Co-Localises with MMP9- in the Renal Tubular Cells in an Experimental Model Ischemia/Reperfusion [4].

IRCA termed as Iodinated radiographic contrast agents are drugs used to improve the visibility of internal organs and structures. As Iodine is a significant component of contrast media possessing high-contrast density in X-ray based imaging, techniques such as radiography, angiography, to perform cardiac catheterizations and percutaneous coronary interventions. Their utility keeps increasing notably with advanced vascular disease, hypertension, diabetes and impairment of renal function in both less healthy and older patients. Anyhow, there are many side effects most frequent being contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). In the article after a short description of the epidemiology and pathogenesis of this Contrast-Induced Nephropathy, authors Michele Andreucci et al. [1]., discussed the conditions favoring the development of contrast-induced nephropathy in patients. Later, suggested the measures to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy, beginning with monitoring renal function, discontinuation of potentially nephrotoxic drugs, use of iodixanol at the lowest dosage possible. At the end authors ruled out the main procedure for prevention of Contrast-Induced Nephropathy is an adequate hydration of the patient with either oral water intake, isotonic sodium chloride or sodium bicarbonate infusion.

Escherichia coli is the pathogen most commonly related with infections after transrectal ultrasonography-guided prostate biopsy, and the prevalence of fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli is increasing. This study by Satoru Minamida et al. [2]., examined stool cultures, determined the presence of fluoroquinolone-sensitive labelled as normal and resistant E. coli. For this, the data from 150 consecutive patients who underwent transrectal ultrasonography-guided prostate biopsy from May 2013 to October 2014 were analyzed. A stool culture 7 days before prostrate biopsy is obtained. For 3 days once, daily patients received 500mg levofloxacin orally 2 hours before prostate biopsy. Out of 150 patients, 12% had a stool culture positive for fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli. No patients developed acute bacterial prostatitis after prostate biopsy. It is concluded that obtaining stool cultures and administering a targeted prophylactic anti-microbial agent can control the onset of acute prostatitis after transrectal ultrasonography-guided prostate biopsy.

In order to explain which of the plasma cytokines, interleukin-2 and interferon-γ, interleukin-4, interleukin-10, and transforming growth factor-β1, is most closely related with the progression of chronic renal allograft injury (CRAI), Fumiya Obata et al. [3]., analyzed plasma from 87 patients who had undergone kidney transplantation. On this account the patients were classified into two groups based on the level of plasma creatinine. The transforming growth factor-β1 level is significantly higher in the normal creatinine group than in the high creatinine group. These results suggest that plasma transforming growth factor-β1 helps to preserve the function of kidney allografts by suppressing the progression of CRAI. Finally, authors analyzed anti-HLA class I and class II antibodies of both the IgG and IgM immunoglobulin classes in the patients’ plasma. It is found that the high creatinine group showed a significantly higher frequency of IgM antibodies against HLA class I and/or class II than the normal creatinine group, suggesting that anti-HLA IgM antibodies may be implicated in functional impairment of kidney allografts.

It is previously shown that the expression of endostatin (ES) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in kidney in response to acute kidney injury induced by ischemia/reperfusion. The purpose of this research by Milena et al. [4]., is to examine the effect of renal ischemia/reperfusion injury on the expression and localization of ES and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9). The findings of this study indicate that MMP-9 could be involved in renal collagen XVIII cleavage and, consequently, in the release of ES. Therefore, these molecules could represent a new mechanism of cellular response in this kidney injury model.

For more information: https://jacobspublishers.com/june-2015-volume-2-issue-2-nephrology-and-urology/

The Journal welcomes articles from all the fields related to Nephrology and Urology.

Reference:

  1. Andreucci M, Faga T, Perticone F, Michael A. Radiographic Contrast Agents, Drugs Useful for Diagnostics, but with Contrast- Induced Nephropathy as Side Effect. J J Nephro Urol.2015, 2(2): 1-14.
  2. Minamida S, Taoka Y, Satoh T, Nagi S, Hirano S et al. Clinical Utility of Stool Culture in Targeting Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Transrectal Ultrasonography-Guided Prostate Biopsy. J J Nephro Urol. 2015, 2(2): 1-6.
  3. Obata F, Yoshida K, Takeuchi Y, Kubo M, Endo T et al. Plasma transforming growth factor-beta 1 and anti-HLA IgM antibodies affect the functional preservation of kidney allografts. J J Nephro Urol. 2015, 2(2): 1-6.
  4. Cichy MC, Paiva KBS, Dagli MLZ, Sanches DS, Schor N, Bellini MH. Endostatin Co-Localises with MMP9- in the Renal Tubular Cells in an Experimental Model Ischemia/Reperfusion. J J Nephro Urol. 2015, 2(2): 1-7.

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