Editor Note: Neurology and Neuroscience

Editor Note: Neurology and Neuroscience

*Corresponding author: *Corresponding author: Dr. T. Vinay Bhushanam MS, MCh, Neurosurgery senior resident, Nizams institute of medical sciences, Hyderabad, Tel: 09985402281; Email: vinnu_mbbs@yahoo.com

Understanding the biological basis of brain functioning is the “ultimate challenge” of Neurology and Neuroscience. The scientific study of the nervous system includes physiology, cytology, anatomy, mathematical modeling, molecular biology, and developmental biology in order to understand the fundamentals of neurons and its neural circuits.

The scope of Neurology and Neuroscience has widened with numerous studies on neurons to imaging of sensory and motor tasks in the brain giving rise to another disciplines as neuro-education, neuro-ethics, and neuro-law.

Journal of Neurology and Neuroscience Volume 2 Issue 2 published articles discussing Transorbital Occult Penetrating Injury with Orbitorrhoea and Cerebral Abscess Complications [1], A Review Article on Neuropathic Pain [2], and Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis and PET-MRI [3].

Abscess is caused by infection or by inflammation at an incidence of 4 cases per million and in the pediatric population abscess occur commonly between 4 to 7 years age group children. However, brain abscess occurs mostly due to spreading of hematogenous from a distant infection that occurred cause of traumatic injury or may be due to a postoperative complication. Transorbital injuries that occurs due to break in the skull base results in cerebrospinal fluid orbitorrhoea that is an uncommon mechanism of head injury. These injuries may be unnoticed and can be mistaken as tears from eye. Moreover, few patients develop further complications as cerebral abscess and with increased risk of forming abscess if there is any brain injury associated with it. Vinay Bhushanam et al. [1]., presented a rare case of 8-year-old child who had sustained injury while travelling in an auto-rikshaw crushed with a lorry hit from the front side. Child had unnoticed cerebrospinal fluid leak from the laceration below the eye, sutured at primary care center. After one month he developed pus discharge from the laceration and fever. On CT and MRI scan brain revealed a huge abscess at the frontal lobe for which abscess was tapped and antibiotics were given for 6 weeks according to the sensitivity. Cerebrospinal fluid leak was decreased and neurological improvement was observed with serial CT scans revealing sinking of the abscess. This presented paper highlights the significance of good clinical examination, high index of suspicion and avoidance of complications, orbito-cranial imaging, management of protocol and follow ups of the patients with orbito-cranial injuries.

Timothy Allen et al. [2]., presented a review article discussing neuropathic pain. This pain is described as a chronic condition arises due to the damaged nerves or pathological changes in the peripheral nervous system. It effects mainly on the outside of the brain and spinal cord. Therefore, it is mainly considered as “peripheral neuropathy pain”, effecting yearly over 20 million of Americans. The etiology of neuropathic pain is complex and varies in various cases such as neurodegenerative disease, physical trauma, infectious agents and metabolic diseases. Anyhow, there is variation in treatment initiation, drug selection and dosage. On this account, in general author listed few available options for treatment that includes anti-depressants, selective serotonin and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, anti-convulsant, tramadol and opioid analgesics. Even though treatment of neuropathic pain is still a challenge to manage more clinical evidence along with pharmacological managements are required. At the end author concludes that the main obstacle for the neuropathic pain is the lack of awareness and misconception about neuropathic pain’s complexities, leading to misdiagnosis and mistreatment. This article focuses on various types of treatment, prognosis and management of the neuropathic pain.

Third article by Tiffany Fisher et al. [3]., talks about a case report of 28-year-old female with a past medical history of epilepsy presented with 8-9 breakthrough seizures. These were defined as head turning to the right, eyes rolling backward and unresponsiveness, also followed by a generalized tonic-colonic movements for two minutes. A case of anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis that requires multiple diagnostic techniques such as EEG, MRI, SPECT, and PET-CT, PET-MRI helps defining the complexity of ictal and interictal seizure activity is reported. The usefulness of PET-MRI imaging in the detection of an ictal focus and PET-MRI provide valuable information regarding seizure foci in patients with conflicting EEG and traditional nuclear medicine imaging modalities is concluded. Moreover, negative baseline cerebral MRI does not preclude the use of MRI-PET in detecting epileptogenic foci.

For more information:   https://jacobspublishers.com/august-2015-volume-2-issue-2-neurology-and-neuroscience/

The Journal welcomes articles from all the fields related to Neurology and Neuroscience.

Reference:

  1. Bhushanam V T. Vijayasaradhi, Kalyan B. Transorbital Occult Penetrating Injury with Orbitorrhoea and Cerebral Abscess. J J Neur Neurosci. 2015, 2(2): 1-5.
  2. Allen T, Giridhar M N V and Ghazaleh S E R. A Review Article on Neuropathic Pain. J J Neur Neurosci. 2015, 2(2):1-9.
  3. Fisher T, Vaughn B, Sheikh A, Shin H W. Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis and PET-MRI. J J Neur Neurosci. 2015, 2(2):1-4.

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