Editor Notes- AIDS/HIV

Editor Note

AIDS/HIV

Sailaja

Institute of Genetics, Osmania University, Begumpet, Hyderabad-500017, India.

*Corresponding author: Dr. M.Sailaja, M.Sc.,Ph.D, Institute of Genetics, Osmania University, Begumpet, Hyderabad-500017, India; E-mail:  sailajamadhuri@gmail.com

This journal aims to keep scientists, clinicians, researchers, students, and general public aware of AIDS-related information with a strong focus on basic, clinical and translational science as well as on epidemiology and disease prevention. The journal of volume 1 issue 1 puts the concepts of health literacy and the challenges to support people living with HIV, a study on the pharmacokinetic and virologic response of HIV-1 in women treated with Lopinavir/ritonavir, determine the outcomes of patients co-infected with tuberculosis and HIV, an cross-sectional study inspecting relationship between AF and cardiovascular fitness in HIV+ individuals, and also reviewed the demographic data, clinical features, diagnostic methods, treatment and follow-up of patients with diagnosis of AIDS and histoplasmosis, evaluated at the Medical Mycology Department, Venezuela, from 1994 to 2013.

Corless et al. [1]., explored the concepts of health literacy with help of patient care team (PCTM) and also investigated the challenges observed by this team in order to provide HIV education so as to support people living with HIV (PLHV). This study scrutinizes the concepts of health literacy grasped by PCTM and was carried out at Botswana and US as PCTM as focus groups. Three themes with sub-themes were acknowledged in this study. Individual challenges to HIV education included physical and psychological challenges, beliefs, and socio-economic factors. The second theme, provider-associated challenges to HIV education. The third theme, systems-level challenges related to HIV education, included eligibility for funded care and assumptions about patient literacy. However, author recognized methods were often not within their power to implement. Therefore, it is established that the basic literacy is fundamental to improve the health literacy and health of PLHV.

Lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) is a dose combination medication used for the treatment and prevention of HIV/AIDS. Beverly E. Sha et al. [2]., studied the pharmacokinetic and virologic response of HIV-1 in women treated with Lopinavir/ritonavir. Author enrolled pregnant women ≥13 years of age between 22 to 30 weeks gestation who were expected to be on stable lopinavir/ritonavir for ≥8 weeks pre-delivery and ≥24 weeks post-delivery. Pharmacokinetic evaluations for lopinavir and ritonavir arisen at 36 weeks gestation and 6 and 24 weeks postpartum. It was observed that at 36 weeks gestation, 5 of 10 women had viral load <50 copies/mL and at 6 weeks postpartum 5 of 9 women had viral load <50 copies/mL. Also, nine of ten infants for whom data were available were HIV negative. It is concluded that regardless of below target lopinavir levels, women maintained virologic control postpartum. Hence, higher doses of lopinavir or ritonavir medication during pregnancy may not be necessary in all women.

Tuberculosis remains an imperative opportunistic infection among patients who are HIV-positive, and it continues to be a significant cause of mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Joseph Enegela et al. [3], designed study to determine the outcomes of patients that were co-infected with tuberculosis and HIV at the commencement of antiretroviral therapy. Patients with tuberculosis and patients without tuberculosis were comprised and all patients were studied with the probability that the care would end. However, care ended when patients were lost to follow up, died, or ended antiretroviral therapy. A total of 1262 patient charts were included with an average age of 37 years, and 65.3% were females. A comparison between patients with tuberculosis and patients without tuberculosis groups showed that the tuberculosis group had a higher risk of ending care than the non-tuberculosis group. Hence, author concludes patients with tuberculosis require close monitoring and follow up, even after completion of their anti-tuberculosis therapy.

It is established that cardiovascular fitness can improve autonomic function (AF) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. Author Morgan et al. [4]., carried out cross-sectional study inspecting relationship between AF and cardiovascular fitness in HIV+ individuals on antiretroviral therapy. For this, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2MAX) were measured by exercise test and then scaled allometrically and heart rate variability (HRV) and the Autonomic Reflex Screen were used to study AF. From the study’s author observed a positive relationship between AF and fitness levels and HIV+ individuals could benefit from improved fitness. Hence, it is concluded that an active lifestyle that increase or maintain aerobic fitness can potentially amend symptoms of autonomic dysfunction in HIV-positive individuals.

Histoplasmosis, caused by Histoplasma capsulatum, is endemic in Venezuela, and is the most frequent AIDS defining disease. It is also linked with significant morbidity and mortality in these patients. Maria Eugenia et al. [5], reviewed the demographic data, clinical features, diagnostic methods, treatment and follow-up, of patients with diagnosis of AIDS and histoplasmosis, which were evaluated at the Medical Mycology Department, Venezuela, from 1994 to 2013. Along with authors collected demographic, epidemiologic, and clinical data from each case. It was found a high proportion of co-infection of HIV/AIDS and histoplasmosis i.e. 39.42% and the majority of patients, were from urban environments. Finally, author believes country in which histoplasmosis is endemic, clinicians should consider the diagnosis of this disease, when they evaluate AIDS patients with fever. Hence, clinicians need to be aware of non-specific signs and symptoms in AIDS patients.

For more information: https://jacobspublishers.com/jacobs-journal-of-aids-hiv/#1529398619555-45fd7167-f694

Further, the Journal welcomes articles from all the fields related to AIDS/HIV.

Reference

  1. Corless, IB, Sefcik, EF, Hamilton MJ, et al. Health Literacy: Challenges to HIV Knowledge. J J Aids Hiv 2015; 1(1): 1-8.
  2. Sha BE, Tierney C, Sun X, et al. Pharmacokinetic Exposure and Virologic Response in HIV-1 Infected Pregnant Women Treated with Lopinavir/Ritonavir: Aids Clinical Trials Group Protocol A5153S: A substudy TO A5150. J J Aids Hiv 2015; 1(1): 1-7.
  3. Enegela J, Jummai A, Flora E, et al. The Presence of Tuberculosis at the Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy Predicts Retention in Care: A Retrospective Review of Patients on ART in Nigeria. J J Aids Hiv 2015; 1(1): 1-6.
  4. Kocher MH, Hetzler RK, Shikuma CM, et al. Autonomic Function is Associated with Fitness Level in HIV-Infected Individuals. J J Aids Hiv 2015; 1(1): 1-8.
  5. Landaeta-Nezer ME, Mata-Essayag S, Colella MT, et al. Histoplasmosis in AIDS Patients in Venezuela. J J Aids Hiv 2015; 1(1): 1-9.

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