Jacobs Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacovigilance (ISSN 2475-4951)


Jacobs Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacovigilance is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research on the toxicological an pharmacological effects of environmental contaminants, pharmacologic concerns on both experimental and clinical levels, clinical toxicology, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, drug interactions, collection, detection, assessment, monitoring, and prevention of adverse effects with pharmaceutical products.
It seeks multi-disciplinary research and collaboration among scientists, pharmaceutical industries and healthcare sector to provide an international forum for the communication and evaluation of data, methods and opinions in pharmaceutical sciences and its related disciplines.
The journal invites authors to submit their review articles and research articles, case reports and letter to editors on special interest and relevance.


  • Pharmacoepidemiology
  • Pharmacogenomics
  • pharmacokinetics
  • Pharmacotherapy and Posology
  • Pharmaceuticals and personal care products
  • Clinical pharmacology
  • Neuropharmacology
  • Psychopharmacology
  • Pediatrics pharmacology
  • Toxicology
  • Theoretical pharmacology
  • Behavioral pharmacology
  • Environmental pharmacology
  • Adverse Drug Reaction and treatment
  • Clinical research and Drug legislation
  • Pharmacovigilance and drug safety





Dr. Stefano Delli Pizzi

G. d’ Annunzio University of Chieti-Pescara, Italy


  • Pharmacoepidemiology
  • Pharmacogenomics
  • pharmacokinetics
  • Pharmacotherapy and Posology
  • Pharmaceuticals and personal care products
  • Clinical pharmacology
  • Neuropharmacology
  • Psychopharmacology
  • Pediatrics pharmacology
  • Toxicology
  • Theoretical pharmacology
  • Behavioral pharmacology
  • Environmental pharmacology
  • Adverse Drug Reaction and treatment
  • Clinical research and Drug legislation
  • Pharmacovigilance and drug safety

Open access truly expands shared knowledge across scientific fields; it is the best path for accelerating multi-disciplinary breakthroughs in research.

What is Open Access?

By Open Access, we mean the free, immediate, availability on the public Internet of those works which scholars give to the world without expectation of payment, permitting any user to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search or link to the full text of these articles.

Why Open Access?

Funders invest in research in order to accelerate the pace of scientific discovery, encourage innovation, enrich education, and stimulate the economy to improve the public good. They recognize that broad access to the results of research is an essential component of the research process itself. Research advances only through sharing of results, and the value of an investment in research is only maximized through wide use of its results.

Yet, too often, research results are not available to the broadest community of potential users. The Jacobs Publisher Open access journals provide a new opportunity to bring information to a wider audience at virtually no marginal cost, and allow them to use it in new, innovative ways. This has resulted in a call for new framework to allow research results to be more easily accessed and used.

Open access publishing promotes knowledge transfer by mouse click to global scientific community; users can discuss the articles in their research communities.
Open access publishing covers various initiatives and projects across the globe to make academic studies and results available to a wider readership.
In an Open Access publishing model the author retains the copyright, manuscripts are published relatively quickly, they are peer-reviewed by experts and quality will be maintained.
As open access publications has given unrestricted access, free of charge to world, even people in poorer countries who usually lack the financial means can access and use them.
Open access includes the increased visibility and citability of publications and all the other advantages of digital use, such as availability anytime, anywhere, being easier to find using search engines and the option of saving, copying and printing an article by user.
In a one word Open access is a driving force to bring research work online to global scientific world.

Editor Guidelines

We recognize the importance of our Editor/ Editor-in-Chief who play crucial role in Open Access Publication right from forming of editorial board to publishing of manuscripts in fostering the quality of a publication and the journals content. Editor/ Editor-in-Chief render invaluable services to Open Access through their eminence in research & expertise in respective field.

Responsibilities and Guidelines of the Editors

Editors are requested to assign the articles to the reviewers received from the editorial office. Articles are assigned based on the research interest of the editors. If the editors are busy with the other commitments, they can directly inform to the editorial office which enables us to assign the same article to other editors having similar research interest.
Timely contribution of the articles/ editorials/ short communications for upholding the issues constantly in the journal.
Encouraging the submission of the quality articles by recruiting authors or referring colleagues.
To determine the quality of the article once it is received from the editorial office.
Timely response to the editorial office to complete the review process within the provided timeline.
There is no limit for the editors to process the articles. It depends on the editors’ interest & his involvement in other commitments.
We encourage editors to provide new ideas/ suggestions for the development of the journal.
Editor has to monitor the complete peer review process to maintain the standards of the journal.
Editors need to ensure the protection of individual data and maintain confidentiality. While considering case reports and patient photographs, it is always suggested to obtain informed consent in written format.
Editors should ensure that all the articles are published with respect to the scope of the journal based on relevancy, integrity, scientific strength, new inputs, potential interest, completeness, clarity and ethics. Also assure that decisions given upon manuscripts are not affected by the authors’ origin, personal issues, nationality, ethnicity, race, religion or political beliefs. Decisions must be provided strictly based on the articles scientific validity and importance to the scientific community.


Review Process
Selection of reviewers
Reviewers Instructions
1. Review Process:

Reviewers play a major role in judging the quality of submitted manuscripts, articles or journals along with the Editorial Board Members through Peer-Review process. EB members help in handling the submitted manuscripts based on their expertise. They can accomplish the peer review process based on their own knowledge and experience or they can assign this task to the reviewers. The assigned reviewers are supposed to submit their comments to Editorial office by inclining to one of the below decision, the final decision maker is the assigned EB member. The identity of the reviewers is confidential to the authors at any time either during the process of review or after its publication. The papers should not be assigned to other people without Editors permission.
Reviewers comments should support one of the below mentioned acts.

• Accept it unconditionally
• Accept it with Minor revision
• Major revision
• To reject it outright (explain reason in report)

2. Selection of Reviewers:

Selection of reviewers for a particular manuscript is the responsibility of Jacobs’s publishers. It is based on many factors like expertise, proficiency and excellence in their particular field and their knowledge of past performance.
As part of our editorial procedure, we grant potential reviewers before sending them manuscripts to review. These Reviewers should keep in mind that even these initial messages or conversations contain confidential information, should be regarded as such.

3. Reviewer instructions:

Anonymity: Though reviewers are anonymous throughout the process, the review should be transparent, unbiased and should not involve personal or professional conflicts in the decision making.

Confidentiality: The articles received for review should be treated as confidential documents and should not be disclosed with anyone except with the assigned Editorial board and his reviewers. Reviewers are requested not to use any information of the assigned data even after publication unless they have the written statements of the authors.

Timely Review: The review process that results in timely publication provides a valuable service both to authors and to the scientific world.

Timeline: 10 days for Research/Review/Case Reports
07 days for Short Reports

Acceptance/ Rejection: The final decision of whether to accept or reject an article depends on the editor. Reviewers should mention a proper, sensible and fair reason to reject an article with recommendations.
Jacobs’s publishers allow reviewers to be notified about the outcome of the paper.

Feedback: The feedback to the reviewers along with the reviewer’s comments of that article will be sent to the reviewer to identify and transform themselves. Editorial Board who offers an opinion not accordance with the reviewer of that article should not feel that their recommendation is not considered and appreciated as it is the job of the EB members to make a decision.

It is easy to Submit the Manuscript at Jacobspublishers.

Send us an Attachment to :  addictionandtherapy@jacobspublishers.international


All submissions to Jacobs Publishers are published under the Creative Commons Attribution License which allows anyone to copy, distribute or reuse the articles by properly citing the author and the original source.

The procedure of submitting your manuscript is easy and quick.

Regular Issue submission

The steps need to be followed to submit your manuscript in the Regular Issue are as follows

Prepare your manuscript by following the Author Guidelines
Prepare a cover letter by downloading for Regular Issue CLICK HERE
Fill the data in the cover letter.
Mail the full manuscript along with the cover letter at: submissions@jacobspublishers.com
You will receive an acknowledgement within 24-48hours.
Special Issue submission

The steps need to be followed to submit your manuscript in the Special Issue are as follows

Prepare your manuscript by following the Author Guidelines at https://www.jacobspublishers.com/index.php/author-guidelines-in-foremostlinks
It should be clearly mentioned in the cover letter along with the title, if it is submitted to the Special Issue.Ex: Special Issue: Development of critical care in AIDS patients.
Download the cover letter for Special Issue: CLICK HERE
Fill the data in the cover letter mentioning about the Special Issue title.
Mail the full manuscript along with the cover letter at: specialissues@jacobspublishers.com
You will receive an acknowledgement within 24-48hours.
Note: Manuscript should be submitted in word/PDF file. A confirmation mail from the editorial office will assure you that your manuscript has been received.

Ethics in Publication

Ethical Principles: Jacobs authors are expected to stick to the ethical standards and conduct that remain mandatory in scholarly publishing. During the submission, authors need to mention that their work has not been submitted elsewhere, instances (if any) & conflicts need to be stated and plagiarism must be strictly cross checked. For Animal/ Human models, ethical authorization copy needs to be submitted.

Breach of copyright/ Plagiarism: Plagiarism can be defined as making a replica of the published content. Jacobs Publishers strictly against the Plagiarism. We cross check every submission that is been submitted to any of its peer reviewed Journal. Any submission that has partially /completely plagiarized content will be rejected immediately after submission.

Attribution Practice: Citations need to be acknowledged for previously published content. It is obligatory when new ideas or results are produced. If the author fails to reproduce citation for any previous work, it will be considered as technical plagiarism and the paper might be rejected immediately.

Conflicts of Interest: Jacobs Publishers involves double blind peer review system to avoid conflicts for the submitted manuscript. The authors should hold responsibility in providing conflicts if any to avoid further conflicts.

Confidentiality Protection: Editors, Reviewers need to be very cautious while handling the research work of the authors. It is ethically not accepted to use/disseminate the unpublished work. Use of the unpublished work might consider for legal actions.

Human and Animal Rights: Clear statements of ethical clearance documents need to be provided if applicable. The work involving animal models and human volunteers need to submit the essential statements.

Consents/Instances: Author needs to state consents and instances if any to avoid further obligations. Clear statement with written signature must be presented by the author while submitting his/her work.

Civility & Misconduct Allegations: Editors, Reviewers, Authors & the Journal staff are expected to adhere to the basic professional courtesy. Any verbal abuse, debates and insult is highly offended by the Jacobs Publishers. The supposed misconducts are severely offended further.

Jacobs Membership

As an endeavor in this noble mission we Jacobs publishers have rolled out a new concept called “Membership with Jacobs publishers” in which we provide maximum benefits to support your research. We hope this initiative of Membership with Jacobs publishers will inspire the global scientific & research community to usher in a new spirit of research. Following are the categories of memberships offered by Jacobs membership.

Individual Membership

In Individual Membership the registered scientist/ individual can publish unlimited submissions/ research work/ scientific work (Research/ review/ case reports/ editorial articles) for the period of one year.

Departmental Membership

In Departmental Membership the registered department can publish unlimited submissions/ research work/ scientific work (Research/ review/ case reports/ editorial articles) from entire department i.e. from Professors, Associate Professors, Assistant Professors and students of that department in our journal.

University/ Institutional Membership

In University/ Institutional Membership, the registered University/ academic institute can publish unlimited submissions/ research work/ scientific work (Research/ review/ case reports/ editorial articles) to any of Jacobs Publishers Journals.

Society/ Association Membership

In Society/ Association Membership, the registered Society/ Association can publish unlimited submissions/ research work/ scientific work (Research/ review/ case reports/ editorial) to any of Jacobs Publishers Journals.

Membership Fees

Type  Annual
Individual 3000 USD
Department 5000 USD
University 10000 USD
Industries 15000 USD
For further information regarding membership mail us to info@jacobspublishers.com


Article reprints from Jacobs Publishers commit to promote your research work with its professional quality reprints service delivered directly to your door at an affordable value. It aims to display the potential of the article at interviews, conferences, distribution to colleagues, seminars and other promotional activities. Reprints are produced from the final PDF of the article.

As all articles are open access, readers are free to download and/or print copies from the website, according to the terms & conditions of the Jacobs Publishers License . Authors must agree to distribute such reprints without any alterations, additions, deletions, overprinting, highlighting, promotional messages, or promotional attachments.

Author Reprints :

Author reprints are solely for the author’s personal, noncommercial use. Author reprints are available in both B/W and colour format with the addition of a standard cover page. Each article reprint is available with cover pages of the journal itself in order to maximise the impact and highlight the prestige of the content.

The front cover of the Reprints consists of :

Publisher logo
Name/logo of the journal
Title of article, complete list of authors, and Article information
Commercial Reprints :

Commercial reprints are high quality with specially designed covers. The reprints are an exact replica of the published article. These reprints are available only in the colour format with the customized cover page.

The front cover of the Commercial Reprints consists of :

Publisher logo
Name/logo of the journal
Title of article, complete list of authors, and Article information
Citation information

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E-mail : info@jacobspublishers.com

Phone : 512-400-0398

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Author Guidelines

Publishing your research content in Jacobs Publishers.

To help you to easily publish your manuscript and to ensure that you are aware of all the procedures of publishing, you are requested to go through our guidelines and detailed illustrations.

Following illustrations will help you to understand the steps involved in publishing your manuscript in Jacobs Publishers.

Select a Journal

How to select the journals ?

The journal you wish to publish your article or manuscript should be on the similar subject line as that of your article. For example “Jacobs Publishers ” will accept articles on Cancer Science and Clinical Research.

Prepare your Manuscript

You need to follow few guidelines to ensure that your article is well written and well received by the scientific community and researchers.


Plagiarism (defined by the Latin word plagiaries meaning an abductor and plagiare meaning to steal) is defined by the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy on delinquency in research as the stealing of another person’s ideas, tables, content, processes, results or words without citing the appropriate credit to be considered as crime. . The locality of the content is irrelevant: when it comes to plagiarism, content from the internet is equally comparable to information from appearing in a book or journal.

Plagiarisms are of types namely Self, Blatant and Unintentional: You might have extracted quite some content from your own existing paper. Such a plagiarism is termed self. Blatant is a very transparent way of copying contents from a few papers and unintentional is you might not have noticed while phrasing or paraphrasing.

Jacobs Publishers does not encourage any form of plagiarism, thus we strongly recommend you to check your article content before you submit manuscript to any of our journals. Plagiarism can be checked through online plagiarism software tools (although they are not completely reliable) to minimize further complications.

Formatting Prerequisites

1. Cover Letter
Cover letter must include the list of authors, and title of the manuscript. Mention the name of Jacobs Publishers and choice of interest to which the submission is sent. Cover letter should briefly communicate upon your study to previously published work. It should declare that the work is not published elsewhere. The article type should be mentioned (Research/ Review/ Short Communication/ Editorial/ Case Report/ Perspectives). Lists any suggested reviewers if any. Also, include current telephone and fax numbers, as well as postal and e-mail address of corresponding author to maintain communication.
Sample Cover Letter can be downloaded here: Cover Letter

2. File Types
Authors may submit their manuscript files in either of the mentioned formats like Word (as .doc or .docx), PDF. All the figures must be in either of gif/ tiff/ jpeg formats. The figure should be of high resolution and the figure legend word limit is 300 words.
If your manuscript is or will be in .doc format and contains equations, you must be following the instructions below to make sure that your equations are editable when the file enters production. We recommend you to use Math Type to create the equation.

3. Manuscript Organization
The following order remains same for all the article types except Abstract, Keywords remain mandatory for Research and Review. Word limits for Research/ Review/ Cases/ remain 5000 words where as for Short Communications/ Perspectives/ Editorials remain 1500 words. References cited are excluded in the word limit.

Order of Manuscript

Materials and Methods (Research)
Subheadings (Review and rest of the article types)
Results and Discussion (Results for Research/ Discussion for rest of the article types)



Title: The word limit of the title should not exceed 15 words. Title should be a proper description and relevant to the work provided. Font has to be set to Times New Roman Bold, Title case.

Abstract: Abstract should describe the main objectives of the study. It should be able to list out all the work briefly. Significance and the results of the study need to be precised briefly. Abstract ‘word limit’ should be limited to 300 words.
Note: Abstracts should be free of citations

Keywords: The major keywords used in the study need to be mentioned. Keywords limit is not more than 7-10 words

Abbreviations: If any abbreviations are used in the study, their first usage has to be mentioned in full form along with the usage abbreviation in brackets. If there are too many abbreviations they have to be mentioned below the keywords

Introduction: Introduction should be able to provide the background of the study. It should also provide comprehensive insight on the purpose of the study and its significance. Introduction needs to be descriptive and citations need to be provided

Materials and Methods: Particular details and/or practices for new approaches have to be mentioned. For the used protocols the proper citations has to be mentioned. Results have to be unique and not copied from any other sources. This section should present enough detail to permit researchers to fully replicate your study. We recommend authors to put forward detailed protocols for less well-established methods

Results and Discussions: This section might be further divided in subdivisions. Results and discussions must be providing the results. Illustrate the results of the experiments, the interpretation of these results, and the conclusions

Conclusion: Authors should elucidate how the results communicate to the theory presented as the basis of the study and provide a concise explanation of the allegation of the findings

Acknowledgements: Authors need to provide the funding details and the grant numbers if any. They might acknowledge their supported work

References: Jacobs Publishers use Vancouver referencing style. Authors should provide at least one online link in the references as following (preferably PubMed). Correct formatting of the references is important. Please use the following method for the reference list.

Reference Format: Author(s) Last name. Article title. Journal Name (Journal Short Name as in PubMed) Published year; Volume number: Page numbers.

Name of the author. Title of the book. Name of the chapter. Volume no. Edition. Edited by XXXX. Name of the city: Place; Year: Page numbers.


1.  Book Chapters:
Schnepf E: From prey via endosymbiont to plastids: comparative studies in dinoflagellates. In Origins of Plastids. Volume 2. 2nd edition. Edited by Lewin RA. New York: Chapman and Hall; 1993:53-76.

2. Complete Book:
Margulis L: Origin of Eukaryotic Cells. New Haven: Yale University Press; 1970.

Name of the author (Edition): Name of the conference: Date From –To Month Year; City. Place; Year.
Smith Y (Ed): Proceedings of the First National Conference on Porous Sieves: 27-30 June 1996; Baltimore. Stoneham: Butterworth-Heinemann; 1996.

Name of the author: Title. Degree thesis. Name of the University, Name of the Department; Year.
Kohavi R: Wrappers for performance enhancement and oblivious decision graphs. PhD thesis. Stanford University, Computer Science Department; 1995.

Name of the authors. Title. Journal short name Year, Volume (Issue): Page numbers.
Ponder B, Johnston S, Chodosh L. Innovative oncology. In Breast Cancer Res 1998, 10:1-72.

Name of the authors: Title. Journal short name, in press.
Kharitonov SA, Barnes PJ: Clinical aspects of exhaled nitric oxide. Eur Respir J, in press.

Tables: We strongly support authors to submit tables in .doc format. Each and every table should be in a separate page and numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals and supplied with a legend. Tables should be self-explanatory without reference to the body. Cells can be copied from an Excel sheet and pasted into a word document, should not embed the Excel files as objects.

Note: PDF format of the article should be requested to submit in a doc format, in order to help in the completion of procedure successfully.

Figures and Figure Legends: Submission of Figures must be only in high-resolution TIFF, and JPEG formats. If you have designed images with separate components on different layers, kindly submit us the Photoshop files. Use Arabic numerals to classify figures and upper case letters for their parts and should be in parentheses (Figure 1). Figures legends should be in numerical order on a separate document. Information given in legends should not be repeated in the body.

Equations (OR) Formulae: Please use Math type for equations. Suggested Equation extraction Methods are Table and Equation Specifications.

Supplementary Material: Figures/Summary diagram included as part of the Supplementary Information (if any). All Supplementary Information is supplied as a single PDF file, where possible. File size within the permitted limits for Supplementary Information.

Acknowledgements: Authors need to provide the funding details and the grant numbers if any.

Peer Review of Manuscript

All the articles/reviews/mini communications/special issues or any other content submitted to our journals are first processed by our editorial team. The topics covered in the content are ensured to meet the minimum journal standards for their quality, validity, novelty, relevance and contribution to the respective field. All the submitted content expected to be in accordance with the guidelines of editorial policy of the journal.

Peer review is planned to select technically original research articles of significant interest in the specified areas within the scope of our journals

Reviewers are expected to assess the novelty of the work, to identify flaws and to suggest improvements accordingly.
Reviewers involved in peer review process are responsible to analyze the validity, novelty of the work and can point out any shortcomings in the paper for further improvements
The articles submitted to our Journals are first processed by our editorial team and ensured that the submission meets minimum Journal norms for relevance, quality and contribution as outlined in our Editorial policy.
If the editorial team finds the paper not appropriate in terms of relevance and/or quality issues, the article might be rejected. Thus, articles that are sent out for review are assumed to meet these basic criteria for publication in our Journals.
The submitting authors and the reviewers are concealed from each other throughout the review process.
Peer review creates awareness of the emerging topics in the current research of area of interest.


Articles in Press

January 2018

Volume 3  Issue 1


Coming Soon…

December 2016

Volume 2  Issue 2


Research Article

Acupuncture Treatment for Multiple Sclerosis – Can It Be Effective?

Panagiotis Zogopoulos*, Anastasios Venetikidis, Georgios Vretakos, Dimitrios Rologis

Acupuncture is widely used in both Eastern and Western countries as a complementary or alternative treatment modality for various diseases. Experimental, but also clinical studies have recently provided evidence that it can be effective in treating multiple sclerosis patients, since it seems to improve motor, as well as, sensory disturbances. It is safe and can have a long-lasting effect, even in patients resistant to conventional treatment.

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Research Article

Formulation and Invitro Evaluation of Sustained Release Matrix Tablets of Azathioprine

Gampa Vijaya Kumar, P. Shashikala*

The aim of the present study was to develop an sustained release formulation of Azathioprine to maintain constant therapeutic levels of the drug for over 8 hrs. Various grades of polymethacrylate polymers and ethyl cellulose were employed as polymers. Azathioprine dose was fixed as 50 mg. Total weight of the tablet was considered as 150 mg. Polymers were used in the concentration of 25mg and 50mg concentration. All the formulations were passed various physicochemical evaluation parameters and they were found to be within limits.


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Research Article

The Physiological Response to Echinochrome Pigment Extracted from Sea Urchin in Both Types of Diabetes Mellitus

Ayman Saber Mohamed*, Amel Mahmoud Soliman, Mohamed Assem Said Marie

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most causes of death in the world. It generally classified into type 1 (T1DM) and type 2 (T2DM) diabetes mellitus. The majority of diabetic patients are T2DM and relatively small proportions have type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). In experimental animals, the most prominent diabetogenic agent is streptozotocin (STZ). STZ has selective toxic effects on β-cells. T1DM induced experimentally by high dose of STZ leading to rapid destruction of β cell, severe decline in insulin plasma level and profound hyperglycemia.


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June  2016

Volume 2  Issue 1


Research Article

Pharmacodynamics Parameters Determine Analgesic and Sedative Drug Dosing during Neonatal and Pediatric Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation

Pavla Pokorná*, Lenka Posch, Martina Bašková, Václav Vobruba, Dick Tibboel

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a complex highly specialised treatment modality used in neonates and children with therapy resistent circulatory and/or respiratory failure. Analgesia and sedation during ECMO is used to provide decreased anxiety, pain, induce amnesia or facilitation of synchronous breathing with the ventilator, the prevention of removing lines as well as for cannulation and decannulation etc. Rapid changes in drug disposition on ECMO are due to decreased plasma concentrations and may result in changed pharmacodynamics (PD) due to altered pharmacokinetics (PK). Analgosedation in ECMO patients should be guided by validated pain and/or COMFORT scales.

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Can Drug Combinations Ease Approval of New Promising CNS Products?

Pierre A. Guertin*

The worldwide crisis in 2008 and the patent cliff problems have had a devastating impact on the industry. Pharmaceutical companies have announced 156,000 jobs lost in the United States in recent years. Global sales of prescription drugs have drastically decreased whereas so-called Big Pharma such as GSK, AstraZeneca and Novartis have decided to significant decrease or even cease research activities in neurosciences. Indeed, in these conditions, developing new psychotherapeutic drugs has become more than ever high-risk projects with low approval rates. Unfortunately, many CNS diseases remain associated with significant unmet medical needs. In Europe, 38% of the population is diagnosed with a CNS disorder whereas the global market for CNS therapeutics is expected to reach $129B US dollars by 2020, driven largely by the rapidly increasing market that is aging.

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Research Article

Fluoxetine Outcome for the Treatment of Chronic Low Back Pain: What More We Need to Know

Leonidas Grigorakos*, Anastasia Alexopoulou, Daria Lazarescu, Zoi Gambopoulou, Anna Kandyli, Katerina Tzortzopoulou, Panagiotis Kormas, Christos Kelesis, Nikolaos Sakellaridis

Antidepressants, tricyclic and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), have been used to treat various chronic pain syndromes. Several meta-analyses evaluating the effect of antidepressants versus placebo for short-term therapy (eight weeks or less) in patients with non-specific back pain had conflicting results. Longer-term trials of antidepressants for chronic low back pain are not available.

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Research Article

The Top 25 Middle Eastern Drugs and Comparable U.S. Products to Acquaint Middle Eastern Immigrants with U.S. Medicine

Ara DerMarderosian*, Aren Dabaghian

Within the years 2010-2013, the revolutionary movement, known as the ArabSprings has caused many Middle Easterners to immigrate to the U.S. Due to the increasein Middle Eastern immigrants within the U.S. this research project aims to find the top25 utilized Middle Eastern Drugs, and to find their comparable products within U.S. pharmacies. These 25 Middle Eastern medications were discovered using articles, Middle Eastern drug indices, and via interviews. The medications were compared to one another based on their basic mechanism of action. These findings indicated that more than 80% of the top 25 Middle Eastern drugs are comparable to the medications found in the U.S. As a result the project will aid incoming Middle Easterners who are in dire need of guidance for finding medications in the U.S, and also it will direct U.S. medical practitioners to the plight of Middle Eastern patients.

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Case Report

Profound Coagulopathy and Lactic Acidosis in a Diabetic Patient with Acute Renal Failure Taking Dabigatran and Metformin

Vincent J. Colucci*, Valerie L. Nauditt, Margaret T. Eddy

A 71-year-old female was admitted for treatment of a left hemispheric stroke secondary to uncontrolled hypertension and carotid artery stenosis. Despite worsening renal function, she was initiated on dabigatran 150 mg twice daily. Upon discharge her home medications, including aspirin and metformin, were restarted. Two weeks after discharge she presented to the Emergency Department lethargic and in moderate respiratory distress. An extensive workup revealed lactic acidosis, acute kidney failure, and profound coagulopathy.

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January 2016
Volume 1  Issue 1
Case Report
Sunitinib Induced Life Threatening Acute Hyponatremia in a Lung Cancer PatientChunxiang Li*, Yiwu HuangSunitinib has bene widely used in many different malignancies. We report here a case of a 67 year old woman with metastatic adenocarcinoma of the lungs who developed acute life threatening hyponatremia after received sunitinib 40mg a day for 20 days. Lab study is consistent with syndrome of Inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion(SIADH). She was admitted to medical intensive care unit and received hypertonic saline infusion, strict fluid restriction and vasopressin receptor antagonist tolvaptan. She recovered from this episode and was discharged home. Sunitinib was discontinued permanently. This is a first case report of sunitnib induced severe SIADH.Full textDownload PDF____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Short Communication
Cyp3A5*3 is Not a Pharmacogenetic Marker for Cyclosporine Treatment Response in Psoriasis

Effrosyni Mendrinou, Efterpi Zafiriou, Aikaterini Patsatsi, Angeliki Roussaki-Schulze, Dimitris Sotiriadis, Zissis Mamuris, Theologia Sarafidou,Yiannis Vasilopoulos*

Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease that affects 2-3% of the population worldwide, causing significant morbidity and high financial burden. Cyclosporine is considered to be first-line systemic therapy for moderate to severe psoriasis. However, patients exhibit heterogeneity in their response to therapy, which could be due to genetic factors. Recently, we have shown that the use of a genetic marker in ABCB1, the gene that encodes for P-glycoprotein which is responsible for the influx-efflux of active drug (cyclosporine) into target cells alone or synergistically with the drug-metabolizing enzyme CYP3A4, can predict the response of a 7% of the patients in treatment with cyclosporine.

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Research Article

Rating The Delirogenic Potential of Drugs for Prediction of Side Effects in Elderly Psychiatric Inpatients

Gudrun Hefner, Mohamed EE Shams, Katharina Wenzel-Seifert, Andreas Fellgiebel, Tanja Falter, Ekkehard Haen, Christoph Hiemke*

Providing medical care for aging patients presents challenges, because these patients are at risk of comorbidities and polypharmacy. Many commonly prescribed drugs for them have delirogenic, especially anticholinergic activity. Awareness of these properties is considered to increase the safety of pharmacotherapy. The central nervous system (CNS) of older patients ≥65 years is more sensitive to the anticholinergic activity of drugs than of younger patients due to age-related pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic changes, leading to CNS related adverse drug reactions (ADRs) such as impairment of cognitive functions, agitation and sedation, and peripheral effects such as tachycardia, dry mouth, constipation, visual impairments, or urinary retention.

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Case Report

Could Thiocolchicoside Together With Beta-Blockers Result in Addictive Effects and a Potential Risk of Myocardial Depression?

Carchietti Elio MD1*, Cecchi Adriana PhD2

Thiocolchicoside used for treatment of symptomatic muscular contractures in rheumatic and neurological disorders, may cause the side effects. Cardiotoxicity of thiocolchicoside has never been reported. We report the case of a 66-year-old male patient suffering from hypertension, ischemic heart disease, with a previous acute myocardial infarction in 2000, treated with PTCA on drug-eluting stent. Due to a persistent low back pain, he was treated with intramuscolar injection of a 4mg Tiocolchicoside and simultaneous Ketoprofen 100 mg im, for 12 consecutive days, in addition to the existing treatment with metoprolol 100mg twice a day, amlodipine 5 mg once a day, ramipril 2,5 mg twice a day, rosuvastatin 5 mg once a day, Asa 100 mg once a day.

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Research Article

The Role of Antipsychotics in The Treatment of Agitated Patients After Traumatic Brain Injury

Panagiotis Papadopoulos-Manolarakis*, Kleio Stavridi, Panagiotis Zogopoulos, Vasiliki Xenaki, Panagiotis G. Papanikolaou, Georgios Tsanis, Emmanouel Chatzidakis

Agitation is frequently observed in patients after traumatic brain injury and this clinical status is not only dangerous for the patient himself (risk of self-injury) and others, but also impedes medical management and hampers clinical assessment. Antipsychotics are part of the armamentarium for the treatment of this disorder in the clinical setting. Although, they are effective in dealing with agitation, they also affect level of consciousness and can have potential adverse effects on post-traumatic recovery. We present the experience of our department regarding the use of these drugs in agitated patients after traumatic brain injury and especially patients that do not need surgical intervention.

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Mini Review

A Family Physician’s Digest of Pharmacogenomics A Case-based Syllabus

Yuan Liu MD*

This is a mini-review of applied pharmacogenomics that is composed for clinicians, especially those providing primary care. In the first half, office scenarios of 7 best known and most clinically relevant drug-gene pairs are presented in brief format, with main references attached to each. In the second half, the background knowledge and current implementations are introduced as a primer leading towards further exploration by interested individuals.

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Review Article 

The Rotenone Model of Parkinson’s Disease in Studying the Mechanisms of Nigrostriatal Cell Death

Omar M.E. Abdel-Salam*

Parkinson’s disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder of the basal ganglia for which no specific cause could be found in the majority of cases. For a long time a possible role for an environmental toxin (s) in a genetic background has been thought. Pesticides and insecticides were implicated in the increased prevalence of PD in rural areas. Rotenone is a plant derived pesticide and a complex I (NADH-quinone oxido-reductase) inhibitor.

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