The effect of Expressive Writing among Illicit Drug Users: A Meta-analytic Review
Published on: 2019-02-11
Purpose: This article examined the therapeutic effectiveness of expressive writing (EW) for psychological health, physical health, and recovery among illicit drug users. Methods: This review involved an extensive search of PubMed, PsychINFO, Web of Science, CINAHL, and the grey literature for randomized trials that evaluated the effect of EW on psychological health, physical health, and recovery of illicit drug users. Nine studies were included in this review. Cohen’s d was computed, effect sizes were combined, and trials’ methodological quality was evaluated. Results: Pooled and non-pooled results indicated no effect of EW on all the outcome measures both at posttreatment and at follow up. The range of effect sizes (ESs) was small (0.02 to 0.35), and most ESs (SMD) were below 0.20 e.g., depression (0.16, N= 218) and drug use (0.14, N= 125). Baseline levels of distress and life change moderated the effect of EW. Conclusion: The results failed to support the therapeutic effectiveness of EW among drug users. Examined studies were deficient—had high unclear or high risk of bias and heterogeneity of procedures. Rigorous studies are needed to examine the therapeutic effectiveness of EW among drug users.