International Journal of Clinical and Medical Imaging

Rna Interference: Progress In Delivery Strategies And Therapeutic Application

*Rana Khalid Iqbal
Department Of Biomedical Engineering, Institute Of Molecular Biology And Biotechnology, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Pakistan

*Corresponding Author:
Rana Khalid Iqbal
Department Of Biomedical Engineering, Institute Of Molecular Biology And Biotechnology, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Pakistan
Email:Khalid.iqbal@bzu.edu.pk

Published on: 2019-02-25

Abstract

RNA interference is a conserved mechanism in which small interfering RNA originate by slicing of double-stranded RNA attaches to target mRNA to stop translation. This mechanism of gene silencing is used therapeutically to treat certain disease, such as cancer, HIV, hepatitis (A& B) and other viral infections. It is identified that certain genetic disorders, Alzheimer & Parkinson’s disease can be treated by transferring cultured neurons through siRNA. In our review paper, we studied latest progress made in the delivery strategies of RNAi therapeutics like liposome, nanoparticles and viral vectors. In this review, overview of recent work and the prospect of RNAi in therapeutic application is also discussed. RNA interference will soon prove as a widely used therapeutic tool.

Keywords

RNA interference; mRNA; Delivery strategies; Nanoparticles; Polycation; RISC; PEG

Introduction

RNA plays a significant part in the expression of a gene. Genes are expressed in two phases, one is a transcriptional state at which certain features of transcription take part and second is the post-transcriptional state at which conversion of m-RNA take place and mechanism of RNAi also happen[1]. Two scientist Fire and Mello firstly informed the phenomenon of RNA interference by short double-stranded RNA which by acting on complementary RNA sequence and can cause the phenomenon of gene silencing in nematode worm [2]. After six years of the finding of RNA interference, first remedy of RNAi for humans was done on age-relatedmolecular degradation and on Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and it was the first medical trial [2]. RNAi based remedy for the disease of humans is a substitute for drug-based therapy. The drug-related remedy for diseases is the main task because of drug effectiveness and medicines reactions to different kind of genomes. After it, the finding of RNAi is a healthier substitute when medicines dependent treatment is failed [3]. The small interfering RNA is typically 21~ nucleotide in their length are fix to matching target RNA and cause the gene silencing. Developments in the area of therapeutics resolve more difficulties associated to disorders which are life-threatening [4]. Early stage trials of RNAi are going on for certain neurodegenerative disorders and some viral infections [5]. For the cure of cancer, it is also use and clinical trials are going for its therapy. In gene knockdown process oligonucleotide are used which are specific in their sequence and stop the expressions of genes. So, this process is also used for gene knockdown process [6]. In the field of biotechnology, it will have high importance and can be used as a new methodology to control the pest in agriculture as well [7]. The silencing method by RNAi is very cheap quick and easy to study the function of homologous genes in a broad range of species [8]. In this review paper, we focused on the advancement in RNA interference-based treatment in human disorders, mechanism and delivery approaches of RNAi and the targeted process of gene knockdown. In recent years much of development occurred in therapies of disorders involving the RNAi approaches.