Jacobs Journal of Agriculture

Compliance of Finnish Male CHD and Total Mortality with Soil Fertilization in 1957- 1990

*Toysa Timo
Department Of Agriculture, Pohjolank 15, 74100 Iisalmi, Finland

*Corresponding Author:
Toysa Timo
Department Of Agriculture, Pohjolank 15, 74100 Iisalmi, Finland

Published on: 2018-10-15


Magnesium (Mg) tissue content has been associated with vascular pathology and risks of coronary heart disease (CHD). Associations between fertilization, morbidity and mortality have been studied in veterinary, but less in human medicine. In this study we assessed changes in male (M) CHD and total (TOT) (mortality) and their regressions by fertilization parameters: calcium (Ca), Mg, potassium (K), phosphorus (P), nitrogen (N) and carbonate (CO3) (direct or functions of these parameters) in 1957-1990, when medical treatments were less effective than today. Fertilization parameters are given as equivalents/ha. The aim of this study is to assess whether mutual ratios of mineral elements in fertilization of Finnish agricultural soils were associated with male TOT and CHD.
(Regressions by) [Mg/(Ca+Mg+K)] and (combined regressions by) [Ca;Mg;K], [CO3;Mg;K] and [N;P;K] explained highly significantly (p < 0.001) and remarkably variation in TOT (94-98 %) and in CHD (57 - 81 %). In the represented combined regressions coefficients by mineral elements promoting Mg uptake (Mg and N) were negative, by mineral elements reducing Mg uptake (Ca, CO3, K and P) generally positive.
The mutual variation in the amounts of Ca, CO3, Mg, K, P and N fertilizers of Finnish agricultural soils in 1957-1990 explained significantly TOT and CHD mortality. Effects of Mg on 300 enzymes could explain its primary effect on TOT and secondary effect on CHD. These associations could be mediated through Mg variation in basic food.


Total Mortality; CHD; Calcium; Carbonate; Fertilizers; Magnesium; Potassium; Nitrogen; Phosphorus; Agriculture


Decreased tissue magnesium in sublingual epithelial cells [1], and femoral muscles [2] have been reported in connection with vascular pathology. Experimental hypomagnesemia can cause vascular damages and myocardial necrosis in different animals [3]. Additional magnesium intakes of animals on atherogenic, hyperlipidemic diets decreased arterial and myocardial lipid deposition without lowering the elevated serum lipids [4]. In contrast, high calcium intakes have been reported to decrease the serum lipids but to raise the arterial lipids [5]. Atherosclerosis has been strongly associated with oxidative stress and disturbed mitochondrial metabolism and function [6]. This is supported by experiments of Manju and Nair (2006) [7]. CHD risk factors [8] cholesterol [9] and total cholesterol: HDL cholesterol ratio (as LDL/HDL cholesterol) [10] can be seen to some extent as indicators of lipid peroxidation, too.