Jacobs Journal of Anatomy and Physiology

Extracellular vesicles and biomineralization

Published on: 2018-07-28


At the end of the last millennium the concept of the cell membrane had been modified from that of a container and physical barrier to include the function of a regulating and transducing organelle. Initially it was the impact of electrophysiology that changed the approach but then the universality of calcium signalling was recognised and the observation emerged that evolution had adapted the positively charged calcium cation and the negatively charged phosphate anion as the two primary signalling elements of cells. Calcium alone was found to bind thousands of different proteins, with consequent effects on the understanding of cell functions That was quite a revolution but it is certainly not the only one.