Jacobs Journal of Anatomy and Physiology

Cellular Discrimination Pathways

*Kenneth Simkiss
Department Of Physiology, University Of Reading, Foxhill, United Kingdom

*Corresponding Author:
Kenneth Simkiss
Department Of Physiology, University Of Reading, Foxhill, United Kingdom
Email:kensimkiss@aol.com

Published on: 2018-07-27

Abstract

In 1955 the Belgian physiologist Christian de Duve applied the techniques of ultracentrification and electron microscopy to discover a group of new membrane bound organelles within animal cells. These structures were full of enzymes capable of breaking down a wide variety of biological polymers and the organelles became known as lysosomes. In subsequent years it slowly became apparent that these lysosomes were associated with a whole group of cellular storage diseases. It was also discovered that calcium was involved with lysosomes and acted as a component in the cellular signalling and cell survival systems. They were a totally unsuspected aspect of inorganic biochemistry.

Keywords

Introduction

In 1955 the Belgian physiologist Christian de Duve applied the techniques of ultracentrification and electron microscopy to discover a group of new membrane bound organelles within animal cells. These structures were full of enzymes capable of breaking down a wide variety of biological polymers and the organelles became known as lysosomes. In subsequent years it slowly became apparent that these lysosomes were associated with a whole group of cellular storage diseases. It was also discovered that calcium was involved with lysosomes and acted as a component in the cellular signalling and cell survival systems. They were a totally unsuspected aspect of inorganic biochemistry.Similar revelationsoccurred with the geologist’s suggestion that the early Cambrian sea was extremely rich in mineral particles. The sea was saturated enough to produce deposits that would tend to coat any bottom living organisms with life threatening sediments. It was, therefore, only after the Cambrian era, when the seas became diluted, that organisms could be found as shells in the fossil record, showing that they had developed a biomineralization system to protect themselves with a defensive shell. It was pointed out by the physiologist Jahnen- Dechent that the descendants of such organisms would perhaps then be in danger of also mineralizing their own organs. This could result in the evolution of organisms that had to protect their own organs, such as the cardiovascular system, by circulating anti-calcification molecules such as fetuin-A. It was a creative theme linking the benefits of bone formation to the need to evolve molecules that would protect the soft tissues from also mineralizing. It took its inspiration from the study of geology and the suggestion that the control of the human soft tissues probably required inhibitory molecules for use in the medical laboratory.