Jacobs Journal of Anatomy and Physiology

Effects of Anaerobic Exercise Training on S-Klotho in Young and Elderly

*Moran Saghiv
Department Of Exercise Science, University Of Mary, Bismarck, United States

*Corresponding Author:
Moran Saghiv
Department Of Exercise Science, University Of Mary, Bismarck, United States
Email:mssaghiv@umary.edu

Published on: 2015-01-20

Abstract

The purpose of the present study was to compare the association between s-klotho serum levels and IGF-1 levels in trained anaerobic sprinters and aerobically trained young adults. Methods Thirty healthy sportsmen were recruited as sprinters and endurance athletes: aerobically well trained young adults and well trained anaerobic sprinters (24.7±1.0, 24.2±1.0 years respectively), underwent maximal oxygen uptake test. Blood samples were drawn from a forearm vein after overnight fasting, s-Klotho levels in the serum were analyzed using an α-klotho Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay ELISA kit, while, IGF-1 was measured by a chemiluminescent immunometric method. Results: Significant (p>0.05) differences were noted between the aerobic group and anaerobic sprinters with regard to s-Klotho (645±105.2 and 427±92.0 pg•mL-1 respectively), IGF-1 (70.2±10.9 and 94±21.5 nmol•L-1 respectively) and maximal oxygen uptake (60.3±2.7 and 55.1±2.7 mL•kg- •min-1 respectively). Conclusions Anaerobic exercise training is not a potent stimulus to increase plasma s-Klotho levels. Being an aerobic athlete, especially at an elite level, seems to be associated with decreased risk factors for major chronic diseases.

Keywords

Lactic acid, IGF-1, aerobic training, untrained young adults, ?-Klotho

Introduction

Anaerobic boutscan be limited by lactic acid levels in the blood and active muscles. It is characterized by exposing the subjects to a very high degree of sudden strenuous all-out exercise, Thus, increasing insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels in the blood, primarily due to a substantial major increase in plasma catecholamine concentrations. When reactive oxygen species production overwhelms the protection and repair mechanisms, the net effect is oxidative stress and oxidative damage of DNA, membrane lipids, and proteins. In mice, the anaerobic exercise bouts decreased the growth rate. Inhibition of weight gain may result from exercise intensity and duration or frequency. Indirect data have supported the concept that IGF-1 may be atherogenetic because it can induce vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation in vitro. On the other hand, soluble-Klotho (s-Klotho) is a powerful protein that has been linked to the prevention of muscle atrophy, osteopenia, and cardiovascular disease. s-Klotho is a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved, shed and act as a circulating hormone. The secreted s-Klotho protein can regulate multiple growth factor signaling pathways, including insulin/IGF-1. S-Klotho-deficient mice show a shortened life span and multiple disorders resembling human aging, while, over expression of s-klotho increases lifespan. Similar anti-aging effects have also been ascribed to aerobic exercise and physical activity. While an association between aerobic exercise and s-Klotho expression has been previously suggested from longitudinal cohort studies, a direct relationship between circulating s-Klotho and anaerobic exercise training has not been investigated. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to to assess whether the association between s-klotho serum levels and IGF-1 levels is different in long lasting aerobic exercise training from well-trained young adult sprinters.