Jacobs Journal of Anatomy and Physiology

Extracellular vesicles and biomineralization

*Kenneth Simkiss
Department Of Biological Sciences, University Of Reading, Play Hatch, United Kingdom

*Corresponding Author:
Kenneth Simkiss
Department Of Biological Sciences, University Of Reading, Play Hatch, United Kingdom
Email:Kensimkiss@aol.com

Published on: 2018-07-28

Abstract

At the end of the last millennium the concept of the cell membrane had been modified from that of a container and physical barrier to include the function of a regulating and transducing organelle. Initially it was the impact of electrophysiology that changed the approach but then the universality of calcium signalling was recognised and the observation emerged that evolution had adapted the positively charged calcium cation and the negatively charged phosphate anion as the two primary signalling elements of cells. Calcium alone was found to bind thousands of different proteins, with consequent effects on the understanding of cell functions That was quite a revolution but it is certainly not the only one.

Keywords

Introduction

At the end of the last millennium the concept of the cell membrane had been modified from that of a container and physical barrier to include the function of a regulating and transducing organelle. Initially it was the impact of electrophysiology that changed the approach but then the universality of calcium signalling was recognised and the observation emerged that evolution had adapted the positively charged calcium cation and the negatively charged phosphate anion as the two primary signalling elements of cells. Calcium alone was found to bind thousands of different proteins, with consequent effects on the understanding of cell functions. That was quite a revolution but it is certainly not the only one. In 1946 a young woman presented herself with a slight bleeding problem at the local hospital where they were studying the clotting time of blood. In treating her they discovered that if a sample of plasma was centrifuged, the time taken for it to clot was extended. It appeared that something was being spun out of the supernatant fluid and whatever it was could be returned by adding the small pellet of debris in the centrifuge tube. Several decades later it became apparent that there was a large selection of smaller and smaller vesicles that occurred not only in the plasma but also with in virtually all cells and their extracellular fluids. Since then it has been a continual revelation as to what functions these structures might encompass.