Jacobs Journal of Bone Marrow and Stem Cell Research
Bioactive Mediators Associated with Mesenchymal Stem Cells-Mediated Immunomodulation
Published on: 2016-06-07
Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have gained the attention in the field of regenerative medicine and cell therapy due to the low immunogenicity, distinctive immunomodulatory properties and also for the large potential to differentiate into many cell lines with not only mesenchymal origin. Our knowledge of the reparative, regenerative and immunomodulatory properties of MSCs is advancing. At the present we have a very comprehensible understanding how the MSCs affects the immune system. The MSCs are able to influence both the innate and adaptive immune responses via wide range of effector mechanisms. In particular, these mechanisms include secretion of soluble bioactive agents, induction of regulatory T cells, modulation of tolerogenic dendritic cells, and induction of anergy and apoptosis. In order to exert the immunomodulatory properties the MSCs require priming by inflammatory factors released into the local microenvironment. Subsequently, in order to perform tissue repair functions, the MSCs influence the microenvironment by modulation of inflammatory processes and release of various bioactive factors. Based on these unique features we can state that the MSCs can be successfully used as the powerful tools in the therapies of tissue damage on the immunological basis. In conjunction with gene manipulation techniques these cells can serve as carriers for therapeutic agents. Additionally, the MSCs may be used in anticancer therapies and as the cells that positively influence the survival of transplanted tissues and organs.