Jacobs Journal of Cancer Science and Research

Emerging Approach to Cancer Immunoprevention

Published on: 2016-08-05


Recent identification of stemness pathways in embryonal stem cells (ES) as well putative cancer stem cells (CSCs) provides novel opportunity toward immunologic approaches targeting of pathways associated with stemness. Also, human full-term placenta has been reported to contain a population of broadly multipotent stem cells. A single transcription factor Oct4 is sufficient to convert nonembryonic-derived trophoblast stem cells cells into pluripotent stem cells i.e. placenta embryonic-like stem cells). As the above types of cell undergo deprogramming to a proliferative stem cell state as result of complex signals in the microenvironment, including oxygen availability the transient expression of hypoxia-regulated Oct4 protein is sufficient to induce stem cell dedifferentiation. Current studies have demonstrated that most healthy humans (> 80%) have naturally occurring memory T-cell responses to specific epitopes derived from OCT-4 protein (without any signs of autoimmune disease), indicating that most individuals lack immune tolerance to this critical pluripotency antigen. Most of the OCT-4 specific T cells consist of CD4+T cells. Our preliminary clinical and laboratory immunological studies have shown that women with different genital cancer and obstetrical and gynaecological patients with clinical conditions that show pathophysiological settings in which hypoxia occurs, particularly when rapid cell growth exceeds blood supply return to the proliferative stem cell state, promote syncytiotrophoblast hyperplasia and endometrial hyperplasia and that hyperplastic placental cells, hyperplastic endometrial cells, but also cancer cells are all immunogenic and are cross-reactive against a pharmaceutical Placental Suspension (phPS) prepared upon Filatov’s method that qualifes it as an immuno-modulator for a prophylactic cancer vaccine. These suggest that the immunogenicity of hyperprolferative phenotype of placental stem cells is a direct result of upregulation of Oct-4 expression and overexpression of Oct4-associated prot ein (MW 38, 6 kDa). Thus, our previous prophylactic vaccination method proposal with human allogeneic phPS/BCG Vaccine by harnessing the patient’s natural immune surveillance for the stem cell marker Oct-4, potentially could lead to elimination of premalignant lesions before their progression to cancer. By pre-conditioning the vaccine site with a potent recall such as BCG Vaccine to induce inflammation, dendritic cells (DCs) mature and migrate to draining lymph nodes and induce immune responses.


stem cells,microenvironment,protein,vaccine