Immunological Checkpoints: CD137 and LAG3 Receptors as a Target for Cancer Immunotherapy - Literature Review
Published on: 2018-10-29
In recent years, the search for more efficient and less toxic anti-cancer therapies focuses on monoclonal antibodies targeting cells’ immune checkpoints. Stimulation of the immunological response against tumor cells is potentially safer than chemotherapy. However, the currently used anti-PD1, anti-PD-L1 or anti-CTLA4 antibodies are effective in a limited population of patients and also immunotherapy may induce autoimmune toxicity. The aim of this study was to present the latest information on anti-CD137 and anti-LAG3 monoclonal antibodies in anticancer therapy. The overview was made with the use of pubmed.com and clinicaltrials. gov databases, searched between the years 2000 – 2016. CD137 activating molecule provides signal to activation and proliferation of T-cells, recruitment of inflammatory cells, transformation of monocytes into macrophages and dendritic cells and the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. LAG3 is an inhibiting protein constitutively expressed on surface of Treg cells and induced on CD4+, CD8+, NK cells, B cells and dendritic cells. It maintains the state of exhaustion of CD8+ T cells and reduces synthesis of many cytokines e.g. IFN-α. The results of the current studies indicate that the immunological checkpoints blockade or stimulation is the right approach towards the development of anticancer therapy.
Cancer Immunotherapy; CD137; 4-1BB; LAG-3; Immunological Checkpoints