Anal cancer is a rare disease that accounts for 0.4% of all cancer diagnoses in the United States. Its incidence has increased by 2.2% annually. The risk factors associated with anal cancer are Human Papilloma Virus (HPV), Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), sexual practices, smoking and immunosupression. Immunotherapy is an alternative to chemotherapy and radiation that uses a patient’s own immune system to fight the cancer. This can be done by giving the patients man-made immune system proteins to stimulate their immune system. In this paper, we will discuss the current trends in utilizing immunotherapy to fight anal cancer along with the different molecules involved in the proliferation of the disease.