Jacobs Journal of Cancer Science and Research

A Review of Newer Technologies in Development of Nanomedicines for Cancers

*Timothy Allen
Department Of Oncology, Enter For Excellence In Research And Development, United States

*Corresponding Author:
Timothy Allen
Department Of Oncology, Enter For Excellence In Research And Development, United States
Email:Timothy.Allen@gapsos.com

Published on: 2015-11-10

Abstract

Keywords

Nanomedicines; Nanotechnology; Nanohybrids; Nanoparticles; Targeted Drug Delivery; Multidrug Resistance; Pluronics; MDR Modulators; siRNA; Cancer Therapeutics

Introduction

Cancer is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In-spite of many advances in therapeutic aspects, it only resulted in modest impact on patient’s survival. Increased understanding of the underlying mechanisms of tumorigenesis, has led to the discovery and development of highly specific agents that are capable of exerting their effects on individual proteins or pathways, which are over expressed or aberrant in tumor cells. For example, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) was found to be over expressed in one-fourth of breast tumors, which led to the development of trastuzumab (Herceptin), a recombinant monoclonal antibody that binds to the extracellular domain of HER2 [1]. Though the novel chemotherapeutic agents led to improved survival, there is a number of biological barriers that limits the effective drug delivery, leading to only a small fraction of drugs reaching the tumor. Most of these novel preparations are sequestered by the reticulo-endothelial system (RES) [2]. This results in the accumulation of drugs in healthy organs, and leading to inherent toxicity associated with the drug as seen with doxorubicin, a DNA intercalator that results in cardio toxicity [3]. Additionally, abnormal blood flow in and around tumors, interstitial pressure gradients, and cellular/nuclear membrane traversals are some of the factors that hinder the curative potential of anticancer drugs. Taking into account all these factors, there is need for further discovery and development of more effective ways to deliver drugs to tumor cells.