Jacobs Journal of Cancer Science and Research

COX2- Inhibitors and Their Role in Cancer Prevention and Treatment

*Timothy Allen
Department Of Oncology, Enter For Excellence In Research And Development, United States

*Corresponding Author:
Timothy Allen
Department Of Oncology, Enter For Excellence In Research And Development, United States
Email:Timothy.Allen@gapsos.com

Published on: 2015-08-27

Abstract

The various steps, in the process of carcinogenesis take many years, which contributes to several opportunities for intervention to inhibit growth of the disease. The reduction in the risk associated with cancer may be done by few effective chemopreventive agents through inhibition of the initiation of carcinoma or induction of apoptosis or DNA repair in cells harboring mutations. Over expression of cyclooxygenase-2(COX-2) has been identified in precancerous, cancerous and metastatic human cancers and its level was found to be significantly correlating with cancer. In vitro, preclinical and clinical data have supported the hypothesis that COX-2 plays a central role in oncogenesis and treatment with COX-2 inhibitors provides an effective chemopreventive approach like activity of celecoxib in familial adenomatous polyposis. Understanding the role of COX-2 in initiation of carcinomas can lead to many clinical trials testing COX-2 inhibitors for the chemoprevention of a wide variety of cancers that over-express COX-2.

Keywords

COX-2; Prostaglandins; Tumorigenesis; COX-2 inhibitors; Chemoprevention

Introduction

Cyclooxygenases are group of key enzymes involved in the synthesis of prostaglandin. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is an inducible isoenzyme that plays a pivotal role as a mediator of inflammation. Cyclooxygenases catalyze the process of the conversion of arachidonic acid into prostaglandins [1-3]. Prostaglandins along with other arachidonic acid products such as thromboxane and 15-hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acids belongs to the eicosanoid family of fatty acid molecules, which are known to regulate many physiological processes including the inflammatory response, immune responses like immunosuppressive effect [4-6], ovulation [7,8], and induction of mitosis in a cell [9,10]. Epidemiological studies showed that use of Non-Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs), which are prototypic inhibitors of COX, are associated with a reduced risk of various types of cancers [11].