Jacobs Journal of Cancer Science and Research

Emerging Role of Immunotherapy in Breast Cancer

*Timothy Allen
Department Of Oncology, Enter For Excellence In Research And Development, United States

*Corresponding Author:
Timothy Allen
Department Of Oncology, Enter For Excellence In Research And Development, United States
Email:Timothy.Allen@gapsos.com

Published on: 2016-11-29

Abstract

Breast cancer is the second most common cancer in women, after non-melanoma skin cancer. One out of every 8 woman in the United States will develop breast cancer. It can be caused by genetic mutations, using certain medicines, or even hereditary disorders. Traditionally breast cancer would be treated through surgery, radiation therapy or chemotherapy. However, novel approaches in targeting the tumor cells rather than normal cells are changing both the therapeutic options and the prognosis of breast cancer. Immunotherapy, is one of these targeted therapeutic approaches that has been shown promising results in the treatment of specific subtypes of breast cancer and has been subjected to significant development and clinical studies.. This kind of therapy stimulates one’s own immune system and exploits immunologic anti-tumor mechanisms such as antibodies, as well as cell mediated cytotoxicity to fight the malignant tumor. In this paper, we discuss the causes, epidemiology, and potential immunotherapeutic techniques to treat breast cancer.

Keywords

Breast Cancer; Immunotherapy; Estrogen; Monoclonal Antibodies; T-Cell Therapy; Vaccines; Checkpoint Inhibitors

Introduction

Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. In 2014, it was estimated by the National Cancer Institute that there would be 232,670 new cases of breast cancer in females and 2,360 new cases in males. In the same year, they also estimated that there would be 40,000 cases of deaths in females and 430 cases of deaths in males in the United States. As per the statistical analysis, in the United States, breast cancer is the second most common leading cause of death in women and around 1 in every 8 women will develop invasive breast cancer in their lifetime. The annual age-standardized incidence rates (per 100,000 women) were as follows: in North America, 90; Central America, 42; Western Europe, 78; Northern Europe, 73; Southern Europe, 56; South and Eastern Europe, 49; East Asia, 18; North Africa and Western Asia, 28; South-East Asia, 26; South Central Asia, 22; Oceania, 74; and sub-Saharan Africa, 22. The United States have a higher incidence as compared to rest of the world.