*Timothy Allen Department Of Oncology, Enter For Excellence In Research And Development, United States
*Corresponding Author: Timothy Allen
Department Of Oncology, Enter For Excellence In Research And Development, United States Email:Timothy.Allen@gapsos.com
Published on: 2018-10-29
Ovarian cancer is one of the leading causes of death and poses a significant health challenge worldwide. The standard therapy for ovarian cancer involving use of surgery and platinum chemotherapy had led to recurrence among majority of patients. Recent improvement in the understanding of the etiology and molecular characteritics of ovarian cancer has paved the way for exploring the utility of immunotherapy for ovarian cancer. Currently, Avastin (Bevacizumab) is the only US FDA approved immunotherapy to be used in combination with chemotherapy among women who have advanced ovarian cancer. Ongoing and planned clinical trials exploring the potential of various immunotherapy modalities will ultimately demonstrate the clinical utility of this therapeutic strategy. This article focuses on the immunotherapies that may offer therapeutic opportunities in the future.
The exact cause of ovarian cancer is unknown, but several risk and contributing factors have been identified. The risk of ovarian cancer is higher in women with early menarche or late menopause. It is well known that ovarian cancer is related to ovulation. There is growing evidence that estrogen, progesterone, and other hormones also play a role in the development and progression of ovarian cancer. According to the “theory of incessant ovulation”, the repeated ovarian epithelial trauma caused by follicular rupture and subsequent epithelial repair, results in genetic alterations within the surface epithelium. Additionally, the gonadotropin theory states that persistent stimulation of the ovaries by gonadotropin, coupled with local effects of endogenous hormones, increase surface epithelial proliferation and subsequent mitotic activity.