Jacobs Journal of Cancer Science and Research

Immunotherapy in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

*Timothy Allen
Department Of Oncology, Enter For Excellence In Research And Development, United States

*Corresponding Author:
Timothy Allen
Department Of Oncology, Enter For Excellence In Research And Development, United States
Email:Timothy.Allen@gapsos.com

Published on: 2014-12-03

Abstract

Immunotherapy plays a crucial role in the treatment of patients with renal cell carcinoma. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma (MRCC) remains a therapeutic challenge because of its strong resistance to both chemotherapy and radiation therapy. This review explains the advancements of new biologics for the treatment of metastasized renal cell carcinoma with the use of cytokines, interleukin – 2 (IL-2), lymphocyte killer cells (LKC), and IFN alpha. Several immunotherapeutic approaches are being in use for the management of the MRCC, which includes inactivated tumor cells and genetically modified tumor vaccines (GMTV), peptide-based vaccines, and dendritic cells. The role of CD4+ T cell and CD8+ immunity in tumor protection in animal models is also discussed.

Keywords

Immunotherapy; Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma (MRCC); Vaccines; Chemotherapy; Cytokines; CD4+ T Cell and CD8+ Immunity; Tumor Protection; IFN Alpha; Peptide-Based Vaccines and Dendritic Cells

Introduction

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common type of kidney cancer in adults that originates in the lining of proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) in the kidney. The tubule is lined by simple cuboidal epithelium and with brushed borders, which help to increase the maximum area of absorption. It is known as one of the fatal genitourinary tract cancer with 40 % of death rate. Renal cell carcinoma becomes metastatic renal cell carcinoma (MRCC) when the disease tumors starts spreading from the kidney to the other neighboring body parts such as lymphatic system, as well as distant involvement of the lungs, bones, or other organs. Daniel Sennert mentioned tumor in kidney in his text “Practicae Medicinae” first time in 1613.