Jacobs Journal of Cancer Science and Research

The Role of Polyphenol Compounds in the Treatment of Cancer Cells

*Khalil Ur Rehman
Department Of Biochemistry, University Of Agriculture, Pakistan

*Corresponding Author:
Khalil Ur Rehman
Department Of Biochemistry, University Of Agriculture, Pakistan
Email:khaliluaf@yahoo.com

Published on: 2019-03-18

Abstract

Cancer remains a second leading cause of deaths and major public health problem. It occurs due to extensive DNA damage caused by ultraviolet radiations, ionizing radiations, environmental agents, therapeutic agents, etc. Among all cancers, the most frequently diagnosed cancers are lung (12.7%), breast (10.9%), colorectal (9.7%), and gastric cancer (7.81%). Natural compounds are most favorable against cancer on the count of their anti-cancerous ability, easy to avail and efficient. Among natural compounds, polyphenols (flavonoids, catechin, hesperetin, flavones, quercetin, phenolic acids, ellagic acid, lignans, stilbenes, etc.) represent a large and diverse group used in the prevention and treatment of cancer. Natural polyphenols are derived from different plant sources and from various medicinal plants including Petroselinum crispum, Apium graveolens, Flemingia vestita, Phyllanthus emblica, etc. Natural polyphenols possess antioxidant, anti-inflammation, as well as anti-cancerous activities through multiple pathways, they induce apoptosis in breast, colorectal and prostate cancers, lower the nucleoside diphosphate kinase-B activity in lung, bladder and colon cancers, inhibit cell-proliferation and cell cycle arrest by suppressing the NF-kB pathway in various cancers, etc. The current review summarized the anticancer activities of natural polyphenols and their mechanisms of action.

Keywords

Cancer, Flavonoids; Phyllanthus emblica; Lignans; Stilbenes; Yucca periculosa

Introduction

Cancer remains a moment driving reason for death all around the globe after heart diseases. Cancer is an uncontrolled division of ordinary cells in the body. Old cells do not demolish and continue to grow in an uncontrolled way, forming new abnormal cells. These strange cells form a mass of tissue called tumor. Cancer may categorize into five major classes namely as carcinoma, leukemia, sarcoma, lymphomas, and central nervous system cancer. The most physiological and biochemical reasons of cancer are ionized and ultraviolet radiations, viral infections (e.g., human papilloma virus HPV cause cervical growth), smoking, parasites (e.g., schistosomiasis cause bladder cancer), contamination of meal or beverages (e.g., liver cancer start by aflatoxins), and bacterial infections (e.g., gastric cancer cause by Helicobacter pylori). Among all cancers, the most frequently diagnosed cancers are lung (12.7%), breast (10.9%), colorectal (9.7%), and gastric cancer (7.81%). In 2012, approximately 8.2 million people died due to cancer globally, which were associated with liver, breast, cervical, lung, prostate and gastric cancer.