Jacobs Journal of Clinical Case Reports

Isolated Mediastinal Myeloid Sarcoma: A Rare Presentation of Extramedullary Leukemic Tumor

Published on: 2018-05-28


Myeloid sarcoma is a rare solid tumor consisting of myeloid blasts that proliferate in any extramedullary site. It can present before, concurrent with or after the diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia [AML] or other myeloproliferative disorders. The most common sites include skin, gum, lymph nodes, soft tissue, periosteum, and bone. Here, we present a 66-year-old male with a history of bladder cancer and colon cancer who presented with intermittent fever, chest heaviness, dry cough and dyspnea on exertion. CT scan of the chest showed a bulky mediastinal mass. Biopsy and immunohistochemical studies confirmed the diagnosis of myeloid sarcoma. Peripheral blood smear did not show any blasts and bone marrow biopsy was normal. The patient received AML-directed chemotherapy followed by radiation therapy and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.


Myeloid sarcoma; Mediastinal Mass; PET; AML