Jacobs Journal of Emergency Medicine

Cardiopulmonary Affection in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Published on: 2019-05-06

Abstract

Background and study aim Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease that can affect any part of the body. Early detection and quantification of pathological changes are important for assessing the benefits of Cardiopulmonary prevention in SLE management. The aims to study the effect of SLE on cardiopulmonary system, and its early detection. Methods Fifty patients selected from those attending the outpatient clinics and in patients, who admitted to Internal Medicine Department of Al-Azhar Assuit University Hospital, from May 2017 to May 2018, fulfilled the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 1982 revised criteria for classification of SLE. All patients were subjected to complete history taking, clinical examination, routine investigations, transthoracic echocardiography (Echo) and computed tomography (CT) of the chest. The damage was measured using the SLICC (Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics)/ACR damage index (SDI). The disease flare was defined by the increase in the SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI). Results The most common Echo finding was pericardial effusion seen in 20 patients (40%), followed by mitral regurgitation in 14 patients (28%), Mitral valve prolapse was seen in 13 patients (26%).The most common CT chest findings was ground glass opacity seen in 15 patients (30%) followed by pleural effusion seen in 14 patients (28%) and pleural thickening in 10 patients (20%).There was non- significant correlation between EF% and SLEDAI (p=0.95) , but a negative significant correlation between disease duration and EF% (p=0.02). Conclusion All SLE patients even who clinically inactive disease should be screened for the presence of structural cardiac and chest abnormalities. Echocardiography and CT chest can be helpful as a noninvasive diagnostic tool for early detection of such abnormalities.

Keywords

Cardiac changes; pulmonary changes; Systemic Lupus Erythematosus