Application of Deep Sequencing on Leukemia Clinical Practice: How to Use?
Published on: 2016-12-10
The Human Genome Project (HGP) was an international collaborative research with the goal to sequence and map the whole human DNA. It was believed that determining the sequence of the base pairs (A; T; C; and G) on human DNA would allow better understanding of the genetic basis of different diseases, including cancer. The draft of the human genome published in 2001 [1,2] did not ensure us the complete knowledge of diseases; however, it had started an important step to scientific research. The HGP was accomplished with first-generation sequencing (or Sanger sequencing), and this was one of the reasons it took more than 10 years to be completed and cost about $3 billion. The delay and cost of the HGP stimulated the development of new laboratory strategies for genome studies beginning the high throughput DNA sequencing era. The next generation sequencing (NGS) comprises a set of different platforms able to generate large amount of data in short time with high throughput capacity. Currently, there are a number of commercially available NGS machines, each using a particular nucleotide detection system. There are many possibilities of applying NGS into scientific and clinical support, allowing from whole genome sequencing (WGS) or exome (WES) - subset of genome that is protein coding - to the mutational evaluation of target genes [3,4]. Here we will discuss the application of NGS and Sanger sequencing in hematological malignancies, focusing on Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) and Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS).