Jacobs Journal of Genetics

Autism, Still A Medical Mystery? Running Title: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Genetic Features: Importance in Clinical Medicine!

*Farid Menaa
Department Of Stem Cells, United States

*Corresponding Author:
Farid Menaa
Department Of Stem Cells, United States

Published on: 2016-07-01


In 1943, the well-known child psychiatrist, Leo Kanner, announced his discovery of eleven cases of a new mental disorder [1]. He noted that «the condition differs markedly and uniquely from anything reported so far...»This condition soon became known as autism. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is defined by impaired social interaction as well as impaired language and communication accompanied by stereotyped/heartbreaking behavioral traits and increased restricted repetitive behaviors [2]. ASD describes a range of conditions (e.g. autism, social and communication deficits, Asperger disorder, childhood disintegrative disorders, pervasive developmental disorders, and rare syndromes such as such as fragile X and Rett syndrome) [3] classified as neurodevelopmental disorders in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) (http://www.dsm5.org/Pages/Default.aspx).



Recent epidemiology studies (http://www.autism-society. org/what-is/facts-and-statistics/) relate that: (i) about 1% of the world population has ASD; (ii) the prevalence of autism in U.S. children was estimated at 1 in 68 births in 2010, and has increased by 119.4 percent from 2000 (1 in 150) becoming the fastest-growing developmental disability and so a major public health issue with an annual cost over $200 billion; (iii) More than 3.5 million Americans live with an ASD. In autism (MIM 209850), the problem usually emerges in early childhood (2 years old or before) and typically includes a lack of communication; This condition differs from schizophrenia in which the language problems usually occur in adolescence and adulthood and presents as disorganized speech [4]. In ASD patients, early diagnosis, appropriate behavioral therapies and rehabilitation treatments significantly affect the prognosis [5]. It is noteworthy that autism is a multifactorial neurodevelopmental disorder affecting more males than females who are affected only when they cross a higher biological threshold under a multifactorial genetic hypothesis [6]. Moreover, autism has a high heritability, although much remains unclear. In fact, this disorder can be studied as a mystifying collection of genetic variants. Emerging lines of research, integrating systematically findings of multiple levels of genomic data and studies of mouse models, are converging to show how opposing genetic pathways and clinical features can lead to this relatively common disorder. Perhaps, this lays important groundwork in understanding the biology of this complex and etiologically heterogeneous neuropathology. The recent studies highlight the period of fetal development and the processes of chromatin structure, synaptic function, and neuron-glial signaling [2]. This is to say that occurrence of autism is likely developmentally regulated via interaction between the genome and the environment [4].