Jacobs Journal of Genetics

Coupling of Submissiveness Trait with Higher Intelligence in Humans but not in Non-Human Primates via Low Activity Dopamine Beta Hydroxylase

*Donna K Hobgood
Department Of Genetics, University Of Tennessee College Of Medicine, United States

*Corresponding Author:
Donna K Hobgood
Department Of Genetics, University Of Tennessee College Of Medicine, United States

Published on: 2018-08-03


Dopamine beta hydroxylase (DBH) catalyzes the conversion of the catecholamine neurotransmitter dopamine to norepinephrine, and its activity varies as a function of genetics. Dopaminergic neural tissue has roles in a wide variety of traits. In humans, submissiveness trait in tandem with higher intelligence would appear to be linked with decreased dopamine beta hydroxylase activity while in non-human primates and other animals submissiveness trait and lower intelligence are in tandem with higher DBH activity. This apparent state makes clear how pivotal an event was the mutation that caused low activity DBH: the higher intelligence it afforded animals gave them a survival advantage and gave them dominance over other animals while in humans the increased dopamine acting in a large cerebrum caused the evolution of a human ability to see the wisdom of restraint and control of aggression and cooperation instead of domination.



Submissiveness, along with narcissism, perfectionism and aggression, in humans can be posited to be an important aspect of the human character and to be caused by a varying diminishment of aggression trait.[1] Submissiveness in animals is related to decreased dopaminergic activity [2,3] while in humans submissiveness is related to increased dopaminergic activity[4,5]. A variety of dopamine related enzymes, including receptors and transporters, have been studied for a linkage with submissiveness trait, but the enzyme dopamine beta hydroxylase, converting dopamine to norepinephrine, has a pivotal role by virtue of determining the dopamine: norepinephrine ratio. Though DBH hasn’t been studied to determine its effects on submissiveness trait in humans or non-human primates and other animals, it is likely pivotal in stratifying this trait such that low activity DBH causes submissiveness trait in humans and dominance trait in non-human primates. And, because dopaminergic activity is correlated with genetic intelligence [6-9], low DBH likely causes higher genetic intelligence. Therefore, low activity DBH likely causes higher intelligence coupled with more submissive personality in humans but higher intelligence coupled with dominance personality in non-human primates.