Jacobs Journal of Hematology

The Effect of Storage on Various Haematological and Biochemical Parameters of NHSBT Donor Blood

*Peter Ella-Tongwiis
Department Of Biological Sciences, University Of Chester, United Kingdom

*Corresponding Author:
Peter Ella-Tongwiis
Department Of Biological Sciences, University Of Chester, United Kingdom
Email:p.ellatongwiis@chester.ac.uk

Published on: 2018-09-10

Abstract

Background: Recent studies have reported that blood stored for longer periods (>14days) are associated with the development of post-transfusion complications. Most changes taking place in stored blood are biochemical, biomechanical and haematological and are known as storage lesion. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of storage on the various haematological and biochemical parameters of National Health Service Blood and Transplant (NHSBT), whole donor blood.
Methods: 5 units of whole blood suspended in SAGM additive solution was acquired from the NHSBT, United Kingdom (UK). Units were stored at standard blood bank conditions (2-6oC) and analysed on days 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28. Full blood count was performed using Coulter® MicoDiff18 (Beckman Coulter, UK) analyser. Other biological parameters including Prothrombin time (PT), von willibrand factor (vWF), Potassium (K+), Sodium (Na), glucose, ferritin, pH and lactate were measured via various methods, such as the Randox RX Monza biochemistry analyser and ELISA. Results: Our study demonstrates that noticeable changes occur during storage of donor blood. Specifically, red cell membrane damage was observed by increased accumulation of plasma haemoglobin (Hb) (p=0.014) and increases in K+ (p=0.001) and Na+ (p-0.070), whilst glucose (p=0.001) levels decreased at day 28 storage. Significantly higher lactate levels (p=0.002) resulted in a fall in pH especially after day 21. With regards to blood coagulation, PT levels significantly increased during storage, indicating a reduced clotting ability (p=0.001).
Conclusion: This study demonstrates that changes to several haematological and biochemical parameters occur during the storage of blood, and subsequently may cause untoward risks to patients. These parameters, however, need further work employing a larger study to validate reliability in a clinical setting.

Keywords

Biochemical Parameters; NHSBT; Hematology; Haemolysis; Blood transfusion

Introduction

Globally, almost 105 million blood donations are made annually , while according to the National Health Service Blood and Transplant (NHSBT), about 2.1 million blood donations are taken every year in the United Kingdom. In the United States, somebody requires blood transfusion every two seconds. Recent findings from both in vitro and in vivo studies, have raised some concerns about the safety of the transfusion process. Blood stored for more than 30 days was associated with increased death rate in the elderly, severely sick and cardiac surgery patients, have demonstrated an association between duration of storage and high risk of pneumonia in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.