Jacobs Journal of Internal Medicine

Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Esophagus in Untreated Achalasia: Two Case Reports

*Jingran Ji
Department Of Internal Medicine, University Of California, United States

*Corresponding Author:
Jingran Ji
Department Of Internal Medicine, University Of California, United States
Email:jinji@ucdavis.edu

Published on: 2019-10-17

Abstract

ed basal tone of the lower esophageal sphincter and loss of peristalsis. The etiology of this degeneration is generally idiopathic [1, 2]. Secondary achalasia is less common but can be caused by inflammatory and infiltrative processes such as Chagas disease, sarcoidosis, and amyloidosis, among others [3-5]. Typical presentation is dysphagia to both solids and liquids, retrosternal fullness, or chest pain. Patients are often initially diagnosed with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and go untreated for many years [1]. Diagnosis includes an initial trial of a proton pump inhibitor for 4 weeks followed by upper endoscopy if symptoms persist. Subsequent esophageal manometry provides a definitive diagnosis [6]. There are many effective therapies for achalasi

Keywords

Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Esophagus;Untreated Achalasia

Introduction

Achalasia is caused by the degeneration of inhibitory enteric neurons located in the esophageal wall, resulting in increased basal tone of the lower esophageal sphincter and loss of peristalsis. The etiology of this degeneration is generally idiopathic [1, 2]. Secondary achalasia is less common but can be caused by inflammatory and infiltrative processes such as Chagas disease, sarcoidosis, and amyloidosis, among others [3-5].Typical presentation is dysphagia to both solids and liquids, retrosternal fullness, or chest pain. Patients are often initially diagnosed with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and go untreated for many years [1]. Diagnosis includes an initial trial of a proton pump inhibitor for 4 weeks followed by upper endoscopy if symptoms persist. Subsequent esophageal manometry provides a definitive diagnosis [6]. There are many effective therapies for achalasia including pneumatic dilation, botox injection, surgical myotomy, and more recently peroral endoscopic myotomy [7, 8].