Jacobs Journal of Molecular and Translational Medicine
TLR Signaling Pathway Regulation in Association with Autophagy in the Diseased Inner Ear
Published on: 2018-09-15
Inner ear diseases, such as Meniere’s disease and sensorineural hearing loss, significantly impact the work capacity and life quality of affected patients because of the lack of efficient treatments. The causes and mechanisms underlying Meniere’s disease and idiopathic sensorineural hearing loss remain unknown. Inflammation secondary to infection or insufficiency of blood supply are accepted as critical steps toward inner ear impairment. Advancements in the understanding of inflammatory signaling pathways have provided an avenue to discover the molecular mechanisms underlying inner ear disease. The present review summarizes advances in knowledge of pattern recognition receptor (PRR) pathway activation, especially with respect to Toll-like receptor (TLR), which plays an important role in the pathological process of inner ear disease. Hyaluronic acid (HYA) is an important molecule in the inner ear and accumulates in the pathological inner ear. HYA receptors are up regulated in the inner ear under pathological conditions. As the most deleterious regulatory mechanism of the TLR signaling pathway, autophagy is beneficial for the cochlea by suppressing potential excess inflammatory reactions via the degradation of key proteins such as A20 and nuclear dot protein-52.