Jacobs Journal of Obesity

Genetic Polymorphisms of Obesity-related Diseases

*Kleber Santiago Freitas E Silva
Department Of Obesity, Federal University Of Goiás, Brazil

*Corresponding Author:
Kleber Santiago Freitas E Silva
Department Of Obesity, Federal University Of Goiás, Brazil
Email:smallbinho@hotmail.com

Published on: 2018-12-15

Abstract

Obesity is a serious and urgent public health problem worldwide. Around one-third of the world’s pop-ulation is overweight. The prevalence of obesity has doubled in many populations, hindering several types of disease prevention, reducing the quality of life of patients and consequently increasing healthcare costs. As-pects of modern life such as globalization, sedentary lifestyle, high consumption of processed food and high-cal-orie food intake have significantly contributed to increase the prevalence of obesity-related diseases. Obesity is a multifactorial disease and its onset is linked to genetics, epigenetics, behavioral and economic traits. Severe obesity individuals are at greater risk of developing coronary artery disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, os-teoarthritis, several types of cancer, such as breast and endometrial cancers, and eventually premature death. The present systematic review highlights the relationship between genetic polymorphisms and obesity-related diseases. We concluded that innumerous polymorphic genes might increase the prevalence of such diseases in obese patients.

Keywords

Obesity; Obesity-Related Diseases; Genetic Polymorphisms

Introduction

Obesity and related diseases are important health problems that affect people worldwide. There are over 700 million of people with overweight and obesity-related dis-eases in 2015 [1]. The steep rise in the incidence and prev-alence of obesity-related diseases is due to a radical change in lifestyle, such as, more intake of high-energy food and less physical activity practices. Obesity is the immoderate accumulation of fat in the body. It is a medical condition and the excess of fat might bring a negative impact on health [2]. Above all, a genetic component is also important, and the inheritance rate of genes relate to obesity is up to 70% [3]. Obesity is related to diseases and conditions (Figure 1), such as, coronary artery disease [4,5], hypertension [6,7], type 2 diabetes [8,9], osteoarthritis [10,11], several types of cancer [12–14], depression [15,16] and eventually pre-mature death [17]. The most common causes of obesity are uncontrolled food intake, sedentary lifestyle, genetic sus-ceptibility, endocrine disorders, medications and mental disorders [18]. Common sense states that obese individuals have a slower metabolism and they continue to gain weight even if they do not eat excessively. This statement is not sci-entifically proved or supported, actually obese individuals spend a great deal of metabolic energy in order to maintain their increased body mass.
Genetic polymorphism occurs when more than a single allele is present in the locus of that gene within a population at a rate of at least 1%. There is not a specific region of the genome for polymorphisms to take place. In addition, most of the genetic polymorphisms are synony-mous and silent, where the evolutionary substitution of one base for another within a gene coding for a protein produce an amino acid sequence that is not altered. However, poly-morphisms can be related to atypical protein expression or to the production of a non-functional protein and lead to disease onset