Jacobs Journal of Plant Biology

Predicting Soil Organic Carbon Turnover in Soils at the Middle Region of Iraqi Using Infrared Spectra

*Raghad S Mouhamad
Department Of Plant Biology, Iraq

*Corresponding Author:
Raghad S Mouhamad
Department Of Plant Biology, Iraq

Published on: 2019-03-18


Organic carbon plays a significant role in soil fertility and consequently for cost effective farming. In the current survey, two cases of nutrient richness were examined; the organic carbon (C), nitrogen (N), organic matter (OM), C/N ratio, Potassium (K) and phosphorus (P) to predict the residual fulfill of the one-time utilization compost applied under weather conditions at the middle of Iraq after soil management for 14 years also the role of effective microorganisms and bio-fertilizers at 3 years (2015-2018). A functional model associated with flora, soil with different textures and high level of salinity was obtained with the aid of Fourier Transform-Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Mid-FTIR spectroscopy was employed for detecting the typical chemical groups after addition of OM to the soils. Soil samples were collected from 73 sites at 0–30 cm depth, from fields allocated at the Middle region of Iraq. Results were based on the variability in the OM absorbed bands after prediction of standard deviation (RPD) in flora soil of agricultural system and in the hydrophilic components (3500- 1600 cm-1), which correlated significantly with the RPD in the agricultural system. The soil selection sampling with a high distribution of hydrophobic proportions was those most related to salinity and soil texture. Data concerning Iraqi soil support the assessment of the organic carbon soil attribution framework as well as the soil productivity under different agricultural systems.


Organic carbon; Bio-fertilizers; Effective microorganisms; FTIR spectroscopy


The Mesopotamian Plain is covered by the Holocene deposits which represent complex and a substituting succession of sand, clay, sediment and rock (Sissakian et al. 2018). Iraq represents, in general, a flood plain which comprises of Quaternary deposits (Sissakian, 2018). Pleistocene and Holocene deposits may surpass 250 meters in thickness (Sissaki-an et al. 2015). The covering soil sample was obtained for the most part from Zagros-Taurus Mountains, transported by the Tigris and Euphrates rivers and afterward stored in a waterway surge plain grouping because of the waterway stream design (Mohammad et al. 2016). These soils appear to have been exceedingly influenced by past seasonal floods of the Tigris River. Sediment dispersion reveals the dominance of silt in addition to clay or sand at a few spots which cause huge varieties in the shallow aquifer, which is, by and large, unconfined and change in a few spots to semi-confined (UNEP, 2001). This character renders the aquifer to be of prime importance as the principle medium specifically influenced by the regular and anthropogenic components (ACSAD, 2003). In Iraq, calcite soils are found in the “basin of Iraq”, representing about 71.7% of the area of Iraq which is secured with calcite, this rate can be considered as hazardous for farming (Saleh, 2010). The issues experienced in Iraqi soils that containing significant measures from calcite and gypsum which are considered as extraordinary misfortunes in quality after wetting, sudden increment in compressibility after wetting, continuation of deformation and collapse upon filtering because of water movement, presence of cracks due to occasional changes to existence of sink holes in the soil because of nearby disintegration of salts, these sorts of salts may incorporate gypsum, sodium chloride, potassium chloride, carbonates (Al-Dabbas, 2017). They might be consistently scattered in the soil or in the form of lenses, they might be likewise conveyed to the ground water (Margane, 2003; Al Naber and Molle, 2017). The FTIR spectrometers have enhanced the execution of high information acquisition speed, particularly of reproducibility, fast analyses of soil tests (Tatzber et al. 2011). Soil organic carbon fraction including plant residues in various decay phases, bio-populaces, dispersed organic matter and humid fortune) Mineral mixes having functional groups display a combination of complex multi-part classes, group bands which cover into a wide irresolute assimilation (Tatzber et al. 2007; Zhang et al. 2011). The SOM incorporates every organic substrate introduced in the soil, identification in SOM, carbohydrates, lignin, cellulose, fats, lipids and protein aqueous substances; however an imperative point of practical horticulture is to keep up a specific quality of the soil, and thus soil fertility. One way to assess soil quality, or some of the qualitative parameters of the soil, is by the utilization of non-damaging FTIR spectroscopy (Chapman et al. 2001; Tatzber et al. 2010). FTIR spectroscopy studies the reasonable agricultural framework, practices from various Iraqi situations. Notably, SOM spectra are overlapping bands, so one must be cautious while interpreting these spectra (Sila et al. 2016). The aim of this survey was to evaluate the assorted organics affecting the soil samples with different textures. Knowledge and predicated data about the soil allow much pre-accurate management of the issue of soil parameters and more precise divisible to the soil. The root means square errors of calibration (RMSEC), the ratio of the standard error of prediction of standard deviation (RPD), and validation were simultaneous estimated to promote the fit modeling route.