Jacobs Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioural Science

Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) in Canada:Rates, Risk Factors and Associated Health Outcomes

* Margherita Cameranesi
Department Of Psychiatry And Behavioral Sciences, University Of Manitoba, Canada

*Corresponding Author:
Margherita Cameranesi
Department Of Psychiatry And Behavioral Sciences, University Of Manitoba, Canada
Email:cameranm@myumanitoba.ca

Published on: 2019-07-19

Abstract

Objectives: This article presents findings on rates of and risk factors for self-reported intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization among Canadian adults, as well as its associated health outcomes in this population.
The study was designed with the threefold purpose of: 1) estimating and describing age and sex differences in rates of self-reported IPV victimization between 2004 and 2009 in Canada, 2) identifying risk factors for IPV victimization among Canadians, and 3) testing the independent effect of IPV victimization on self-rated general health, self-rated mental health, and self-rated life satisfaction among Canadians.
Methods:
We conducted secondary analysis of nationally representative data from cycle 18 (2004) and cycle 23 (2009) of the Canadian General Social Survey (GSS), and data analysis was performed between February and April 2018. Respondents were selected using a multi-stage probability sampling method, and study participants were Canadians 18 years of age and older.
Results:
Our findings showed that the rates of self-reported IPV victimization in Canada remained substantially stable from 2004 and 2009 at nearly 20%, with younger men and women at greater risk, but no significant differences between sexes. Multiple regression analyses showed that IPV victimization significantly and negatively impacts Canadians’ perception of general health, mental health, and well-being, representing an important risk factor for poor health and low life satisfaction among Canadian adults. Several social determinants of health were found to be significant risk factors for IPV.
Conclusions:
Our findings clearly show that the development and implementation of evidence-based prevention and intervention programs aimed at reducing the occurrence of IPV among Canadians should be deemed a priority in Canada.

Keywords

Intimate Partner Violence, Domestic Violence,Domestic Abuse,Mental Health

Introduction

Family violence is the most prevalent form of violence in Canada [1]. The focus of this investigation is on one specific form of family violence, intimate partner violence (IPV), which can be defined as a pattern of coercive behaviors that involve physical, sexual, emotional, and/or financial harm, perpetrated by one dating or married partner against the other either in an existing or past relationship [2]. IPV represents a serious human rights abuse and a highly prevalent worldwide spread major public health issue that substantially and negatively affects the physical and mental health of both men and women of various age groups [1-4].