A cross sectional study was conducted from November 2017 to April 2018 at Addis Ababa abattoir and kera market place with the objectives of assessing pre and post hide and skin defects. The study was carried out through questionnaire survey and observational study. All the respondents were males. Among the respondents, 30.0% were not educated, 41.67% came from Oromia region and 32.0% of the respondents were farmers and 30 (50%) described the slaughter of animals at home and majority of them prefer sheep (25%) for slaughter. Twenty-nine (48.33%) of the respondents slaughtered animals by hanging on the pole, 18 (30%) used to preserve hide and skin. For preservation, 9 (15%) disclosed the use of salt, 6 (10%) sun draying, 3 (5%) both salt and sun draying preservation methods. Among the respondents 23 (38.33%) of respondent know the impact of storing hide and skin without preservation. From the respondents 18 (30.0%) there animals were affected by lice, 36 (60.00%), tick 6 (10.00%) and by both parasite. The hide and skin observational study revealed none of hide and skins were free from the defects in all the study ruminates except veininess goats. A total of 15.33%, 7.81%, 8.33%, 11.46%, 10.94%, 6.77 % and 5.21% skin defects were registered due to mechanical injury, tick, scar, brand, scratch, hair loss and veininess respectively as pre-slaughter skin and hide defects in examined animals. The present study also confirmed that a total of 32.81%, 19.27% and 11.98% hide and skin defects was observed due to Fly cut/hole, bruising and dirt respectively as post-slaughter defects in the examined animals. The hide and skin management problems that made at the time of per slaughtering and post slaughtering were the dominant problems that indicates the producers were not emphasize in keeping the quality of the hide and skin.
Archaeological studies have shown that skins were used since antiquity as clothes, vessels, bedding and possibly structurally in ancient dwelling places. Skins are renewable and easily perishable resources, their production is dependent on the rearing, management and disposal of the livestock population. The availability of skins through slaughtering or death of livestock is of particular importance to the leather industry. Skins were obtain from fish, birds and reptiles as well as wild and domesticated animals. The most important sources of skins are sheep and goats.
Ethiopia is generously endow with livestock resources with 56.71 million cattle, along with sheep and of goat population of 29.33 and 29.11 million, respectively, which put the country first in Africa. The livestock is an important sub-sector within Ethiopia’s economy in terms of its contributions to national GDP. Livestock contribute to the production of food (meat, milk, eggs and blood), industrial raw materials (wool, hair, hides and skins) input for crop production (draught power and manure) and export earnings (live animals, skin and hides). In 2009, the official estimate of the livestock contribution to agricultural GDP was slightly more than 32 billion Ethiopian birr or $3.2 billion US dollars. In the same year, livestock contributes a total of 113 billion Ethiopian birr, or roughly $11.3 billion US dollars at 2009 exchange rates. In other words, the total economic benefits of livestock goods and services are more than three and a half times greater than the MOFED’s original estimate of the value added from livestock in 2008-2009.(3)
In the export market, hide and skin export has the largest share of animal products next to live animal export. They also generate cash income, which can be used to purchase food grain, seeds, fertilizer and farm implements . Based on annual off take rates of 6% for cattle, 33% for sheep and 37% for goats, the annual production of skin and hide is 2 million cattle hides, 8 million sheep skins, and 7 million goat skins .
Hide and skins are the basic raw materials for the leather industry. Currently there are about 27 tanneries in our country and have an average capacity of processing 4,000 pieces of hides and 30,000 pieces of skins per day (5). Over 70% of the hide and skin, collected and brought to tanneries were rejected due to low quality or defects categorized as pre-slaughter or post slaughter . As results, the country loses millions of dollars annually, the effect of which also reflected in the livelihood of millions of poor livestock keepers.
Many reports about the deterioration of the quality of leather raw material indicated that higher number of skin and hide reject is mainly due to the appearance of skin disease called Ekek that is mainly due to lice, keds and mange infestation 
Large numbers of hides and skins were discarding or their quality was reduced by many factors that can be avoided easily. Some of these factors are inherent to the production structure and animal husbandry practices, whereas others arise from the dispersal of the slaughter facilities, unfavorable marketing structures, poor handling presentation and transportation) of the raw stock, and insufficient collection and preparation for further processing and export. The pre-slaughter operations that affect the quality of the hides and skins available to the tanning industry are principally the result of the quality of the husbandry applied by those who looked after the animals-herders, farmers, ranchers, feedlot staff, veterinarians, hides and skins merchants and transport operators. In some circumstances, domesticated animals may receive almost no attention throughout their lives. The above issues during the life of animal can have effect on hide and skin and can be expressed by mechanical damages like brand marks, scratches, scars and bruises . Therefore the objectives of this study are to assess the major management practices affecting hide and skin quality and to identify the major types of per and post slaughter hide and skin defects at AddisAbaba abattoir.
The study was conducted from December 2017 to April 2018 in Addis Ababa. Addis Ababa is the capital city of Ethiopia .It cover about 540 km2 of which 18.2 km2 is rural. It is between 2200 and 2500 m above sea level. In Addis Ababa, there is municipal abattoir where cattle, sheep, goat and swine were slaughtered and animals for slaughter come from different regions of the country.
For the questionnaire survey, the study population consisted of all animal traders and farmers that supplied animal for slaughter to Addis Ababa abattoirs and abattoir workers in city was considered for the study on the main market days of the weeks within the study period. For the assessment hide and skin defect, correctional observational study was conducted by the researcher in the abattoir
Questionnaire and observational based cross sectional study was conduct to gather enough information about pre slaughter, and post slaughter of hide and skin defects of cattle, sheep and goat in the study area. A questionnaire survey in abattoir was conduct by means of three sets of personal interview. The first set was designed for the hide and skin producers; the second was designed for animal traders to obtain information on hide and skin pre slaughter defects and their awareness on quality requirements of hide and skin. The third set was design for abattoir workers on hide and skin supply pattern, hide and skin pre and post slaughter defects, quality problems.
For questionnaire survey, random sampling technique was used to select farmer and traders. The sample size was determined using the formula recommended by Ashram (2007), for formal studies.
Where, n = sample size; SE= standard error.
The required sample size was calculated at a standard error of 5%, 0.05 precision and 95% confidence level. Accordingly, 60(32 farmers and 28 traders were incorporated in the questionnaire survey and for observational study a total of 192 (64 cattle, 63 and goats, 65 sheep, hide and skin were included using purposive sampling
For the questionnaire survey, 60 persons were interviewed (32 farmer and 28 animal traders) using a pre-tested structured questionnaire. They were interrogating on livestock supply for abattoirand practices of hide and skin management during slaughtering and after the skin and hides are removing. Fresh raw hides and skins supplied in Addis Ababa abattoir were thoroughly examined for possible pre-slaughter and post-slaughter defects, findings were recorded on pre-prepared forms, and various forms of skin defects of pre-slaughter post-slaughter registered in the study area.
The information that was gathered through questionnaire on those selected individuals were Coded and entered to Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and analyzed by using Stata 13 Statistical software. Descriptive statistics was used to calculate the frequency of the respondents.
All 60 respondents to the questionnaire survey were males. Their age ranges from 30-55years and the mean and median age of the respondents was 43.36 and 45 years. Among the respondents, 30.0% were not educated, 41.67%came from Oromia region and 32.0% were farmers as summarized in Table1
Table 1: Demography of the respondents at Kera animal market in Addis Ababa
Among the respondents, 30(50%) described the slaughter of animals at home and majority of them prefer sheep (25%) for slaughter followed by goat (23.33%). Twenty-nine (48.33%) of the respondents slaughtered animals by hanging on the pole. From the respondents, 18(30%) used to preserve hide and skin while 14(23.33%) did not. For preservation, 9(15%) disclosed the use of salt, 6(10%) sun draying, 3(5%) both salt and sun draying preservation methods Table 2.
Table 2: Respondents practice on animal slaughter and hide and skin preservation (n=60).
Among the respondents 23 (38.33%) know the impact of storing hide and skin without preservation. 11(18.33%) of respondent used 12 hour before selling without preservation while10 (16.67%) of respondent used 24 hours. 7 (11.48%), 5 (8.20%) and 13 (21.31%) of respondent have low price, lack of emphasis due to unfair price and waiting for the coming market day were mentioned the reason for dealing in sealing and most were sold the hide and skin for collection center (18.33%) while, 3 (5.0%) preferred to sell for village level collectors.18(30.0%) of respondent get information from local extension workers (Table 3)
Table 3: Respondents practice on the impact of time, dalliances of hides and skin preservation
From the respondents 18 (30.00%) animal their animals were affected by lice, 36(60.00%), tick 6(10.00%) and by both parasite. 27 (45.00%) and 3 (5.00%) of respondent used injection, 3 (5%) spraying and 29 (48.33%) both injection and spraying method for treatment of animals. 54 (90%) the respondents made branding on animals of which 53 (88.33%) used animal identification purpose.
Table 4: Respondent’s awareness about the direct relationship of animal husbandry and management on quality of skin and hide.
n the current study a total of 15.33%,7.81%, 8.33%, 11.46%, 10.94%, 6.77 and 5.21 skin defects were registered due to mechanical injury, tick, scar, brand, scratch, hair loss and veininess respectively as pre-slaughter skin and hide defects in examined animals. On visual examination of cattle hide, the highest defects were due to mechanical injury (21.88%) followed by brand, scratch (12.50%) for each, parasites such as tick was the causes lesions on the skin and hide in all the study animals. The study also revealed that in all skin sampled in sheep and goats were founding at least one defect except veininess was not observed goats species table 5.
Table 5: Pre-slaughter skin and hide defects observed at Addis Ababa abattoir
The present study confirmed that a total of 32.81%, 19.27% and 11.98% hide and skin defects were observed due to Fly cut/hole, bruising and dirt respectively as post-slaughter defects in the examined animals. The highest skin defect, Fly cut/hole (38.46%), bruising (15.38%), and dirt (23.08%) were observing in bovine
Table 6: Post-slaughter skin defects observed at Addis Ababa abattoir.
The present survey revealed that all respondents were male and 30.0% were not educated. However, significant number of them are also lacking this perception suggesting that continued awareness creation programs though livestock extension services is essential. In this regards, the questionnaire survey respondent’s ascertained absence of extension services on hide and skin management. From this the high number of rearing was cattle, followed sheep and goat use purpose care of skin and hide for live animals of skin, and hide to improve the look animal body, to improve for milk production, to improve meat production and cash income.
In current study the higher number of respondent farmers and traders were know animal husbandry and management on directly correlated to the quality of the skin and hide and they did not get regular extension services to protect animals from any disease and protect their skin and hide quality. In this study the respondent get less extension services on skin and hide quality management. But  reported that majority of respondent farmer were aware of the impact of good animal management on the quality of the hide and skin and he regards, ascertained absence of extension services on hide and skin quality management
In this study in the Mainer of the household respondent sold hide and skin to market after backyard slaughter by using with preservation technique ,from which salt(15.00%) ,sun drying (10.00%) were common .this study reported of above 50% of skin and hide producer sell un preserved skin and hide. But  reported that the majority of the household respondent sold hid and skin to market after backyard slaughter in fresh whereas the rest respondent practice different type of hide and skin preservation technique, from which ground draying (57%) and smoking (24%) were common .This is different from the reported that 85% of hide and skin producers sell un preserved hide and skin.
In the current study, 36.66 % of household respondents sell hide and skin to the market. This finding disagrees with  in northern Tigray who reported that all their respondents never sell cattle hides to market because they use them to prepare household utensils.
The defect in live animals was mechanical injury, tick, scar, brand, scratch, hair loss and veininess. In bovine higher prevalence was observed in mechanical injury was 21.88% followed by 12.5% in brand and scratch, 10.94% in veininess, 9.38% in tick and scare and 6.25% in hair loss. In caprin higher prevalence was observed in scratch (15.63%), followed by mechanical injury (12.50), brand (7.81%), scar and hair loss (6.25%) andtick and veininess (4.69%). In sheep higher prevalence was observed in brand (14.06%) followed by (12.50%) in mechanical injury, 9.38% in tick and scar, 7.81% in hair loss, 4.69% in scratch and veininess was not observed in sheep
In post slaughter  reported that in sheepskins, there was a higher prevalence of flay cut/hole (31.4%) followed by dirt (26.5%) whereas, a higher prevalence of dirt (20.8%) was observed in goatskins which was followed by flay cut/hole (16.4%). He also reported 1.5% scar in sheep and 1% scar in goat. The present study agree only with the report of sheep flaycut (31.25% ).On the other hand the prevalence of dirt was lower and the prevalence of scare was higher which was (18.75%) and (6.25%) in sheep, respectively. Similarly the prevalence of dirty was lower (15.87%) and higher scare (11.11%) was observed in goat. In bovine, the prevalence of flycut was 38.46%, dirty 23.08%, scar 9.23%. When it was compared with  Behailu, 2015, flay cut (73.3%) and dirty (43.3%) were lower but the scar was higher than (3.0%).
The present study was conduct with the objectives of assessing the major per and post slaughter hide and skin defects in Addis Ababa abattoir and kera market palace. The result of the questionnaires survey indicates that all the respondents keep livestock for a different purposes and the livestock owners have poor/limited awareness in relation to live animal management with hide and skins quality. The hide and skin observational study revealed none of hide and skins were free from the defects in all the study ruminates except veininess in goats. The major defect observed during examination of raw hide and skin in this study includes mechanical injury, tick, scar, brand, scratch, hair loss and veininess were registered as pre-slaughter skin and hide defects and Fly cut/hole, bruising and dirt observed as post-slaughter defects.The hide and skin managemental problems that made at the time of per slaughtering and post slaughtering were the dominant problems that indicates the producers were not emphasize in keeping the quality of the hide and skin.
Based on the above conclusion the following recommendations are forwarded.
1. There is a strong need to prepare comprehensive training manuals and extension packages on live animal management, such as, per slaughtering, slaughter and post slaughtering hide and skins
2. managements. Extension services performed by the kebele development agents at all levels which can enhance the awareness of the producers and the collectors re
3. garding the hide and skin quality managements. Boost sustainable community based skin disease like tick control.