Journal of Molecular Biomarkers and Clinical Trials

Alopecia Areata: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment

*Dr. Jimenez J Joaquin
Department Of Dermatology And Cutaneous Surgery, University Of Miami Miller School Of Medicine,, Florida, United States

*Corresponding Author:
Dr. Jimenez J Joaquin
Department Of Dermatology And Cutaneous Surgery, University Of Miami Miller School Of Medicine,, Florida, United States
Email:j.jimenez@med.miami.edu

Published on: 2015-03-05

Abstract

Alopecia areata is a type of non-scarring hair loss resulting from an autoimmune response towards the hair follicle, with genetic and environmental factors playing significant roles. It has a chronic, relapsing course and is a frequent complaint encountered in the dermatologic practice. However, the treatment options currently available have variable efficacy, and none are curative. In order to provide better treatment options, extensive research on the disease pathophysiology is being performed. In this comprehensive review article, we discuss the disease clinical presentation, pathophysiology, relevant animal models and current and potential treatment options for further investigation.

Keywords

Abatacept, Alopecia Areata, Jak Inhibitors, Methotrexate, Phenol, Platelet Rich Plasma, Quercetin, Stat, Statins

Introduction

Alopecia areata (AA) is a non-cicatricial alopecia resulting from autoimmune attack of the hair follicle. Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the disease etiology and severity. Disease prevalence ranges from 0.1-0.2% in the United States, with the ratio of male to female susceptibility ranging from 2.6:1 to 1:1.9 according to different reports [1- 3]. It is common for the disease to present between the second and fourth decades [2]. However, males typically have a childhood disease onset, while females more frequently have an adolescent disease onset [3].