Volume 2 Issue 2

Volume 2 Issue 2

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Research Article

Cortisol, Testosterone and Soccer: Hormonal Trends through a Competitive Season

Di Blasio A, Bucci I, Petrella V, Giuliani C, Vitale R, Monaco F  and Napolitano G*

Activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis usually occurs after physical and/or psychological stress with a magnitude modulated by both intensity of the stress episodes and individual variability. Competitive sport activities can be considered as a stressor, and many studies have investigated the dynamic relationships of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis finding different results. The aim of our study was to evaluate cortisol and testosterone levels in salivary samples from 16 soccer players over six training sessions and 18 matches.

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Research Article
High Intensity Exercise Program Using a New Exercise Device Improves Muscle Strength in Women Over 70 years of Age

Dmitry Verniba*, William H Gage

Falls are a major cause of pain, disability, and early mortality in older adults. Reduction in muscle strength and muscle power generation capacity with age is among the reasons why older adults are at a greater risk of falling than younger people. Despite the recent evidence that high-intensity exercise has been shown to be effective in reducing risk of falling for older adults there is reticence for older adults to engage in high-intensity exercise. Additionally, a limiting factor within institutional living for engaging older adults in meaningful exercise can be lack of space and lack of equipment.

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