Radiation Oncology

Editor notes

Radiation Oncology

Corresponding author: Rami Reddy S, Department of Bioinformatics, School of Biosciences and Technology, VIT University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India

Radiation oncology is a medical specialty. Which is aimed to use irradiation to treat cancer in the human body. To create irradiation, a medical machine (linear accelerator) or a radioactive source is used. A variety of systems are then used to ensure that the right amount of this irradiation reaches the right part of the human body. It is multidisciplinary approach with a very precise and modern specialty, by high quality standards and secured machinery.

J J Radiation Oncology is a broad peer reviewed, international online publishing journal. It mainly publishes papers on all the related areas of advanced research carried on in the field of oncology and its interdisciplinary branches. The scope of the journal includes the complete study on cancer treatment that includes prevention, diagnosis, therapy, prognosis aspects and ethical issues surrounding cancer care at cellular and molecular levels.

J J Radiation Oncology of volume 2 and issue 4 published articles discussing topics like the Effects of Flattened and Flattening-Filter-Free Beam on Treatment Plans from USA [1], effect of blockade of Indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase in conjunction with single fraction irradiation in rat glioma [2] and the dosimetry characteristics of a low energy photon intra-operative radiotherapy system [3].

Flattening filters have been used for decades to provide uniform beam profiles. With the rapid developments of intensity- modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), the flattening filter is no longer an indispensable component of a modern radiotherapy system. The potential application of the flattening-filter-free (FFF) beam in modern linac system is being explored in recent years. Removal of the flattening filter from the path of the photon beam leads to significant changes in several physical characteristics of a conventional beam. Additionally, the soft spectrum of the FFF beam is likely to increase the dose to organs-at-risk (OARs). The dosimetric and biological differences between the flattened and FFF beams are still unclear. In view of this Paliwal et al. [1]., investigated the dosimetric and biological differences between the flattened and flattening-filter-free (FFF) beam plans for the 6 and 10 MV photon beams from the Varian True Beam system. For this they have selected thirteen patients with three different cancer sites i.e. head & neck, lung and prostate. For them they have created One hundred and four treatment plans. They used an in-house-developed Mat lab (Math Works, Natick, MA) code based on the CERR software to read the DICOM data extracted from Eclipse to statistically analyze the results. Biological metrics was based on the dose-volume-histogram (DVH). They observed a significant dose sparing with FFF beams for head and neck cases, especially for cases with large field sizes (≈16×20 cm2) and concluded that the FFF beam can provide similar target coverage as the flattened beam with improved dose sparing to OARs.

Ahlstedt et al. [2]., evaluated the combined effect of single-fraction irradiation of 8 Gy with 1-MT treatment in Fischer rats carrying the RG2 glioma model. They also investigated the expression of IDO in the RG2 model before and after irradiation. Initially they gave a brief note about Glioblastoma stating it was classified as Astrocytoma grade IV by the World Health Organization. It is the most common and one of the most aggressive primary tumors of the central nervous system, with a yearly incidence of 2-3 per 100 000 in Europe and North America. Later in their investigation they have used thirty-three Fischer 344 rats which received intracranial inoculations of RG2 tumor cells, and were later treated with either intraperitoneal1-MT, 8 Gy single-fraction radiotherapy, or a combination of the two. They observed survival in the combined treatment group (29 days ± 0.75) was significantly better than controls (20 ± 0.99, p=0.015) and radiation only (17 ± 2.75, p=0.014). Survival was also better with combined treatment compared to 1-MT only but the difference was non-significant (18 ± 0.28, p=0.215). In conclusion, they suggested that 1-MT is by no means a silver bullet for cancers, including glioblastoma, although its potential use in a concomitant treatment regimen in gliomas, primary or recurrent, is intriguing. In this study they have displayed a survival advantage when administering 1-MT in conjunction with single fraction radiotherapy in rats carrying the RG2 glioma. Further study is also warranted in more complex combinatory treatments for example anti-PD1 antibodies in combination with 1-MT. Thus, their results added the growing base of evidence suggesting 1-methyl-tryptophan is an attractive candidate for clinical investigation in patients carrying highly malignant astrocytoma, especially in combination with radiation treatment.

Intra-operative radiotherapy (IORT) with high energy electron beam or low energy photon beam possesses advantage of delivering a single high dose radiation directly to the tumor bed during the surgical procedure and preserving the deep normal tissues. Wen et al. [3]., in his study aimed to commission a low energy photon intra-operative radiotherapy (IORT) system and analyzed the dosimetric characteristics of the X-ray probe, spherical, flat and needle applicators of different sizes. For this they have used a dedicated water phantom, a parallel-plate ionization chamber and an electrometer to measure the dosimetric performance of X-ray probe within different tube voltage/tube current and the depth dose rate, isotropy, dosimetry reproducibility of X-ray probe and 3 different applicators of different sizes; they have further used measurements in order to compare with system data. They observed that the dosimetry performance of the low energy X-ray IORT system changed greatly with the type and diameter of the applicators and depth of measurement, and suggested that it should be considered in the clinical application.

For more information:https://jacobspublishers.com/jacobs-journal-of-radiation-oncology-issn-2376-9424/#1529577946543-2a92e81e-6aff

Further, the Journal welcomes articles from all the fields related to Radiation oncology.

References:

  1. Paliwal B R. The Effects of Flattened and Flattening-Filter-Free Beam on Treatment Plans. J J Rad Oncol. 2015, 2(4): 021.
  2. Ahlstedt J. Effect of Blockade of Indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase in Conjunction with Single Fraction Irradiation in Rat Glioma. J J Rad Oncol. 2015, 2(4): 022.
  3. Wen B. The Dosimetry Characteristics of a Low Energy Photon Intra-Operative Radiotherapy System. J J Rad Oncol. 2015, 2(4): 023.

 

 

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