Volume 4 Issue 1
Methamphetamine Psychosis Model: Simulation of Behaviors Induced by Methamphetamine Treatment in Rodents
Takayoshi Mamiya*, Masayuki Hiramatsu
Methamphetamine (METH), an amphetamine related compound, is one of highly addictive psychostimulants. In these past 20 years, METH abuse has significantly risen worldwide, and is becoming increasingly problematic. METH abusers often suffer long-lasting cognitive deficits, psychosis, mood disorders, suicidal ideations, anxiety, hostility, psychomotor dysfunction, and in extreme cases paranoia, hallucinations, and delusions. Various animal models treated with METH have been produced and utilized, in order to investigate the neural influences of METH. Similar treatment regimens are used for behavioral observation carried out after METH treatment for 5-20 days with/without 1 day-10 weeks withdrawal in mice or rats.
The Effects of Beverage Type on Liver Cirrhosis Mortality Rate in Russia
Y. E. Razvodovsky*
Liver cirrhosis is a major cause of deaths in many developed countries. Over the last three decades liver cirrhosis mortality rates have gradually decline in the European Union. This overall decline, however, masks large differences in trends between member states. In the wine drinking countries of Southern Europe (France and Italy), a reduction in liver cirrhosis mortality rates is being observed, mainly related to the decline in overall alcohol consumption. Conversely, liver cirrhosis mortality rates have increased across the spirits/beer binge drinking countries of Northern Europe and Britain.