Volume 3  Issue 2

Volume 3 Issue 2


Research Article

Puppy Morbidity and Mortality among Breeding Kennels in Nairobi, Kenya

Andrew Matole Konde*

The dog to human population ratio is estimated to range from 1:4 – 1:11. The human population of Kenya was estimated to be slightly over 43 million in 2012. Using the dog human population ratio range of 1:8 – 1:11, Kenya today has an estimated dog population of between 3.6 and 4.8 million. Dog breeders in Kenya are in the business to produce show, companion or guard dogs with an observed stillbirth rate of about 2.3 %, pre-weaning mortality of 11.4 % and a pre-weaning culling rate of 0.9 % for German shepherd dog.

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Mini Review

Is Sperm Hyaluronidase Indispensable in Mammalian Fertilization?

Ekyune Kim*

Fertilization involves several precisely coordinated steps, including sperm dispersal of the oocyte cumulus mass, adhesion and binding to the zona pellucida, penetration through the zona pellucida, and fusion with the oocyte. Hyaluronidase, which is present in the sperm head, is known to be essential for the decomposition of the oocyte cumulus mass. Interestingly, two types of hyaluronidase—SPAM1 and —Hyal5 have been discovered in rodents, while only SPAM1 has been reported in other mammals such as pigs and humans.

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